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Chapter 1. History and Overview

1.1 What is Tourism?

Before engaging in a study of tourism , let’s have a closer look at what this term means.

Definition of Tourism

There are a number of ways tourism can be defined, and for this reason, the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) embarked on a project from 2005 to 2007 to create a common glossary of terms for tourism. It defines tourism as follows:

Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities, some of which imply tourism expenditure (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2008).

Using this definition, we can see that tourism is not just the movement of people for a number of purposes (whether business or pleasure), but the overall agglomeration of activities, services, and involved sectors that make up the unique tourist experience.

Tourism, Travel, and Hospitality: What are the Differences?

It is common to confuse the terms tourism , travel , and hospitality or to define them as the same thing. While tourism is the all-encompassing umbrella term for the activities and industry that create the tourist experience, the UNWTO (2020) defines travel as the activity of moving between different locations often for any purpose but more so for leisure and recreation (Hall & Page, 2006). On the other hand, hospitality can be defined as “the business of helping people to feel welcome and relaxed and to enjoy themselves” (Discover Hospitality, 2015, p. 3). Simply put, the hospitality industry is the combination of the accommodation and food and beverage groupings, collectively making up the largest segment of the industry (Go2HR, 2020). You’ll learn more about accommodations and F & B in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 , respectively.

Definition of Tourist and Excursionist

Building on the definition of tourism, a commonly accepted description of a tourist is “someone who travels at least 80 km from his or her home for at least 24 hours, for business or leisure or other reasons” [1] . The United Nations World Tourism Organization (1995) helps us break down this definition further by stating tourists can be:

  • Domestic (residents of a given country travelling only within that country)
  • Inbound (non-residents travelling in a given country)
  • Outbound (residents of one country travelling in another country)

Excursionists  on the other hand are considered same-day visitors (UNWTO, 2020). Sometimes referred to as “day trippers.” Understandably, not every visitor stays in a destination overnight. It is common for travellers to spend a few hours or less to do sightseeing, visit attractions, dine at a local restaurant, then leave at the end of the day.

The scope of tourism, therefore, is broad and encompasses a number of activities and sectors.

Spotlight On: United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

UNWTO is the United Nations agency responsible “for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism” (UNWTO, 2014b). Its membership includes 159 countries and over 500 affiliates such as private companies, research and educational institutions, and non-governmental organizations. It promotes tourism as a way of developing communities while encouraging ethical behaviour to mitigate negative impacts. For more information, visit the UNWTO website .

The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Given the sheer size of the tourism industry, it can be helpful to break it down into broad industry groups using a common classification system. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was jointly created by the Canadian, US, and Mexican governments to ensure common analysis across all three countries (British Columbia Ministry of Jobs, Tourism and Skills Training, 2013a). The tourism-related groupings created using NAICS are (in alphabetical order):

  • Accommodation
  • Food and beverage services (commonly known as “F & B”)
  • Recreation and entertainment
  • Transportation
  • Travel services

These industry groups (also commonly known as sectors) are based on the similarity of the “labour processes and inputs” used for each (Government of Canada, 2013). For instance, the types of employees and resources required to run an accommodation business whether it be a hotel, motel, or even a campground are quite similar. All these businesses need staff to check in guests, provide housekeeping, employ maintenance workers, and provide a place for people to sleep. As such, they can be grouped together under the heading of accommodation. The same is true of the other four groupings, and the rest of this text explores these industry groups, and other aspects of tourism, in more detail.

Two female front desk employees speak to a male guest in a hotel lobby.

It is typical for the entire tourist experience to involve more than one sector. The combination of sectors that supply and distribute the needed tourism products, services, and activities within the tourism system is called the Tourism Supply Chain. Often, these chains of sectors and activities are dependent upon each other’s delivery of products and services. Let’s look at a simple example below that describes the involved and sometimes overlapping sectoral chains in the tourism experience:

Tourism supply chain. Long description available.

Before we seek to understand the five tourism sectors in more detail, it’s important to have an overview of the history and impacts of tourism to date.

Media Attributions

Front Desk © Staying LEVEL is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license

  • (LinkBC, 2008, p.8) ↵

Tourism according the the UNWTO is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes.

UN agency responsible for promoting responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism worldwide.

Moving between different locations for leisure and recreation.

The accommodations and food and beverage industry groupings.

someone who travels at least 80 km from his or her home for at least 24 hours, for business or leisure or other reasons

A same-day visitor to a destination. Their trip typically ends on the same day when they leave the destination.

A way to group tourism activities based on similarities in business practices, primarily used for statistical analysis.

Introduction to Tourism Copyright © 2020 by NSCC is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Tourism Teacher

What is tourism? A definition of tourism

Disclaimer: Some posts on Tourism Teacher may contain affiliate links. If you appreciate this content, you can show your support by making a purchase through these links or by buying me a coffee . Thank you for your support!

Whilst most of us have been tourists at some point during our lives, you might find yourself asking ‘what is tourism?’ or ‘what is the definition of tourism’?

A definition of tourism

Having studied, worked in and taught tourism management for many years, I can tell you that there is no straight-cut answer to this question! In fact, I do tell you- in this YouTube video below!

The tourism industry is argued to be the largest industry in the world, providing more employment than any other industry. Note, however, the use of the word ‘argued’. You see, the tourism industry is somewhat grey in nature. Elements that some may consider ‘tourism’, others may not. Some people believe they are ‘ tourists ‘, when others do not. Some things are black and white, and others are not.

In this post I will explain why there is no simple explanation in answer to the question ‘what is tourism?’. I will explain the diversity of the tourism industry and provide a range of definitions of tourism that have been developed by academics and practitioners.

What is tourism?

Tourism is the generic term used to cover both demand and supply that has been adopted in a variety of forms and used throughout the world. 

Tourism essentially refers to the activities undertaken by visitors, also known as the visitor economy. The tourism industry encompasses all activity that takes place within the visitor economy.

This includes activities that are directly related to the tourist, such as staying in a hotel, ordering a meal or visiting a tourist attraction. It also includes indirect activities, such as the transport company which delivers the food to the restaurant in which the tourist eats or the laundry company that has a contract with the hotel for cleaning bed sheets.

It is largely due to the indirect contributions to tourism, that defining and measuring the tourism industry is so difficult!

Tourism comes in many different shapes and sizes and there are many different types of tourism . There is mass tourism , niche tourism and special interest tourism. There is domestic tourism and international tourism . There is inbound tourism and outbound tourism .

Whilst there is a range of different forms of tourism, they all come under the broad tourism umbrella, nonetheless. This is because they all revolve around visitors and they all feed the visitor economy in one way or another.

A definition of tourism

Tourism is a phenomenon with no universally accepted definition, owing to the complexity and individualism of the travellers themselves and the activities that they choose to undertake.

The most widely utilised definition of tourism, proposed by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and United States (UN) Nations Statistics Division (1994), prescribes that in order to qualify as a tourist one must travel and remain in a place outside of their usual residential environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.

Matheison and Wall (1982) on the other hand, do not impose a timeframe, simply stating that one must travel to a destination temporarily.

Leiper (1979) believed that defining tourism is more complex than this, proposing that there are three approaches that can be taken. The economic stance focuses on tourism as a business, the technical stance focusses on the tourist in order to provide a common basis by which to collect data and the holistic stance attempts to include the entire essence of the subject.

The Cambridge Dictionary define tourism quite simply as; ‘the business of providing services such as transport, places to stay or entertainment for people who are on holiday’.

Read also: – The importance of tourism – Types of tourism: A glossary – Outbound tourism | Understanding the basics – The structure of the tourism industry – Domestic tourism tourism explained – The history of tourism

Whilst such attempts to define the concept of tourism may be useful from a generic perspective, the practical application of such definitions is difficult when applied to specific tourism types, such as those outlined in this post outlining the different types of tourism.

In fact, Robinson and Novelli (2007), in their introduction to the niche tourism phenomena, postulate that tourists have developed as consumers, becoming increasingly sophisticated in their needs and preferences as a result of an emergent culture of tourism.

Despite such acknowledgements of the progressive and adaptive nature of tourism, particularly evident through the limitless introduction of new and niche tourism forms, there appear to have been no attempts to develop the commonly accepted definitions of tourism in parallel.

As such, I would argue that there is a need the definition of tourism to be revisited by academics and industry practitioner, to ensure that it is representative of the tourism industry that operates today.

How would you define the term tourism?

For more information on what makes up the tourism industry, I recommend the key text Tourism: Principles and Practice by John Fletcher, available from Amazon here .

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Cambridge Dictionary

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Meaning of tourism in English

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  • We must ensure that tourism develops in harmony with the environment .
  • The island is being destroyed by the relentless march of tourism.
  • It is unclear how to mitigate the effects of tourism on the island .
  • Service industries such as tourism have become more important in the post-industrial age .
  • The region's reliance on tourism is unwise .
  • activity holiday
  • air corridor
  • amenity kit
  • caravanning
  • high season
  • phrase book
  • post-holiday
  • put something up
  • ranger station
  • tourist trap
  • trailer park

tourism | Intermediate English

Tourism | business english, examples of tourism, translations of tourism.

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UN Tourism | Bringing the world closer

Ethics, culture and social responsibility.

  • Global Code of Ethics for Tourism
  • Accessible Tourism

Tourism and Culture

  • Women’s Empowerment and Tourism

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The convergence between tourism and culture, and the increasing interest of visitors in cultural experiences, bring unique opportunities but also complex challenges for the tourism sector.

“Tourism policies and activities should be conducted with respect for the artistic, archaeological and cultural heritage, which they should protect and pass on to future generations; particular care should be devoted to preserving monuments, worship sites, archaeological and historic sites as well as upgrading museums which must be widely open and accessible to tourism visits”

UN Tourism Framework Convention on Tourism Ethics

Article 7, paragraph 2

This webpage provides UN Tourism resources aimed at strengthening the dialogue between tourism and culture and an informed decision-making in the sphere of cultural tourism. It also promotes the exchange of good practices showcasing inclusive management systems and innovative cultural tourism experiences .  

About Cultural Tourism

According to the definition adopted by the UN Tourism General Assembly, at its 22nd session (2017), Cultural Tourism implies “A type of tourism activity in which the visitor’s essential motivation is to learn, discover, experience and consume the tangible and intangible cultural attractions/products in a tourism destination. These attractions/products relate to a set of distinctive material, intellectual, spiritual and emotional features of a society that encompasses arts and architecture, historical and cultural heritage, culinary heritage, literature, music, creative industries and the living cultures with their lifestyles, value systems, beliefs and traditions”. UN Tourism provides support to its members in strengthening cultural tourism policy frameworks, strategies and product development . It also provides guidelines for the tourism sector in adopting policies and governance models that benefit all stakeholders, while promoting and preserving cultural elements.

Recommendations for Cultural Tourism Key Players on Accessibility 

UN Tourism , Fundación ONCE and UNE issued in September 2023, a set of guidelines targeting key players of the cultural tourism ecosystem, who wish to make their offerings more accessible.

The key partners in the drafting and expert review process were the ICOMOS International Cultural Tourism Committee and the European Network for Accessible Tourism (ENAT) . The ICOMOS experts’ input was key in covering crucial action areas where accessibility needs to be put in the spotlight, in order to make cultural experiences more inclusive for all people.

This guidance tool is also framed within the promotion of the ISO Standard ISO 21902 , in whose development UN Tourism had one of the leading roles.

Download here the English and Spanish version of the Recommendations.

Compendium of Good Practices in Indigenous Tourism

Compendium of Good Practices in Indigenous Tourismo

The report is primarily meant to showcase good practices championed by indigenous leaders and associations from the Region. However, it also includes a conceptual introduction to different aspects of planning, management and promotion of a responsible and sustainable indigenous tourism development.

The compendium also sets forward a series of recommendations targeting public administrations, as well as a list of tips promoting a responsible conduct of tourists who decide to visit indigenous communities.

For downloads, please visit the UN Tourism E-library page: Download in English - Download in Spanish .

Weaving the Recovery - Indigenous Women in Tourism

Weaving the recovery

This initiative, which gathers UN Tourism , t he World Indigenous Tourism Alliance (WINTA) , Centro de las Artes Indígenas (CAI) and the NGO IMPACTO , was selected as one of the ten most promising projects amoung 850+ initiatives to address the most pressing global challenges. The project will test different methodologies in pilot communities, starting with Mexico , to enable indigenous women access markets and demonstrate their leadership in the post-COVID recovery.

This empowerment model , based on promoting a responsible tourism development, cultural transmission and fair-trade principles, will represent a novel community approach with a high global replication potential.

Visit the Weaving the Recovery - Indigenous Women in Tourism project webpage.

Inclusive Recovery of Cultural Tourism

INCLUSIVE RECOVERY OF CULTURAL TOURISM

The release of the guidelines comes within the context of the International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable Development 2021 , a UN initiative designed to recognize how culture and creativity, including cultural tourism, can contribute to advancing the SDGs.  

UN Tourism Inclusive Recovery Guide, Issue 4: Indigenous Communities

Indigenous Communities

Sustainable Development of Indigenous Tourism

The Recommendations on Sustainable Development of Indigenous Tourism provide guidance to tourism stakeholders to develop their operations in a responsible and sustainable manner within those indigenous communities that wish to:

  • Open up to tourism development, or
  • Improve the management of the existing tourism experiences within their communities.

They were prepared by the UN Tourism Ethics, Culture and Social Responsibility Department in close consultation with indigenous tourism associations, indigenous entrepreneurs and advocates. The Recommendations were endorsed by the World Committee on Tourism Ethics and finally adopted by the UN Tourism General Assembly in 2019, as a landmark document of the Organization in this sphere.

Who are these Recommendations targeting?

  • Tour operators and travel agencies
  • Tour guides
  • Indigenous communities
  • Other stakeholders such as governments, policy makers and destinations

The Recommendations address some of the key questions regarding indigenous tourism:

indigenous entrepreneurs and advocates

Download PDF:

  • Recommendations on Sustainable Development of Indigenous Tourism
  • Recomendaciones sobre el desarrollo sostenible del turismo indígena, ESP

UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conferences on Tourism and Culture

The UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conferences on Tourism and Culture bring together Ministers of Tourism and Ministers of Culture with the objective to identify key opportunities and challenges for a stronger cooperation between these highly interlinked fields. Gathering tourism and culture stakeholders from all world regions the conferences which have been hosted by Cambodia, Oman, Türkiye and Japan have addressed a wide range of topics, including governance models, the promotion, protection and safeguarding of culture, innovation, the role of creative industries and urban regeneration as a vehicle for sustainable development in destinations worldwide.

Fourth UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conference on Tourism and Culture: Investing in future generations. Kyoto, Japan. 12-13 December 2019 Kyoto Declaration on Tourism and Culture: Investing in future generations ( English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian and Japanese )

Third UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conference on Tourism and Culture : For the Benefit of All. Istanbul, Türkiye. 3 -5 December 2018 Istanbul Declaration on Tourism and Culture: For the Benefit of All ( English , French , Spanish , Arabic , Russian )

Second UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conference’s on Tourism and Culture: Fostering Sustainable Development. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. 11-12 December 2017 Muscat Declaration on Tourism and Culture: Fostering Sustainable Development ( English , French , Spanish , Arabic , Russian )

First UN Tourism/UNESCO World Conference’s on Tourism and Culture: Building a new partnership. Siem Reap, Cambodia. 4-6 February 2015 Siem Reap Declaration on Tourism and Culture – Building a New Partnership Model ( English )

UN Tourism Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage  

The first UN Tourism Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage provides comprehensive baseline research on the interlinkages between tourism and the expressions and skills that make up humanity’s intangible cultural heritage (ICH). 

UNWTO Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage

Through a compendium of case studies drawn from across five continents, the report offers in-depth information on, and analysis of, government-led actions, public-private partnerships and community initiatives.

These practical examples feature tourism development projects related to six pivotal areas of ICH: handicrafts and the visual arts; gastronomy; social practices, rituals and festive events; music and the performing arts; oral traditions and expressions; and, knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe.

Highlighting innovative forms of policy-making, the UN Tourism Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage recommends specific actions for stakeholders to foster the sustainable and responsible development of tourism by incorporating and safeguarding intangible cultural assets.

UN Tourism Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage

  • UN Tourism Study
  • Summary of the Study

Studies and research on tourism and culture commissioned by UN Tourism

  • Tourism and Culture Synergies, 2018
  • UN Tourism Study on Tourism and Intangible Cultural Heritage, 2012
  • Big Data in Cultural Tourism – Building Sustainability and Enhancing Competitiveness (e-unwto.org)

Outcomes from the UN Tourism Affiliate Members World Expert Meeting on Cultural Tourism, Madrid, Spain, 1–2 December 2022

UN Tourism and the Region of Madrid – through the Regional Ministry of Culture, Tourism, and Sports – held the World Expert Meeting on Cultural Tourism in Madrid on 1 and 2 December 2022. The initiative reflects the alliance and common commitment of the two partners to further explore the bond between tourism and culture. This publication is the result of the collaboration and discussion between the experts at the meeting, and subsequent contributions.

Relevant Links

  • 3RD UN Tourism/UNESCO WORLD CONFERENCE ON TOURISM AND CULTURE ‘FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL’

Photo credit of the Summary's cover page:  www.banglanatak.com

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Before engaging in a study of tourism, let’s have a closer look at what this term means.

Definition of Tourism

There are a number of ways tourism can be defined, and for this reason, the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) embarked on a project from 2005 to 2007 to create a common glossary of terms for tourism. It defines tourism as follows:

Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities, some of which imply tourism expenditure (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 2008).

Using this definition, we can see that tourism is not just the movement of people for a number of purposes (whether business or pleasure), but the overall agglomeration of activities, services, and involved sectors that make up the unique tourist experience.

Tourism, Travel, and Hospitality: What are the Differences?

It is common to confuse the terms tourism, travel, and hospitality or to define them as the same thing. While tourism is the all-encompassing umbrella term for the activities and industry that create the tourist experience, the UNWTO (2020) defines travel as the activity of moving between different locations often for any purpose but more so for leisure and recreation (Hall & Page, 2006). On the other hand, hospitality can be defined as “the business of helping people to feel welcome and relaxed and to enjoy themselves” (Discover Hospitality, 2015, p. 3). Simply put, the hospitality industry is the combination of the accommodation and food and beverage groupings, collectively making up the largest segment of the industry (Go2HR, 2020). You’ll learn more about accommodations and F & B in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 , respectively.

Definition of Tourist and Excursionist

Building on the definition of tourism, a commonly accepted description of a tourist is “someone who travels at least 80 km from his or her home for at least 24 hours, for business or leisure or other reasons” (LinkBC, 2008, p.8). The United Nations World Tourism Organization (1995) helps us break down this definition further by stating tourists can be:

  • Domestic (residents of a given country travelling only within that country)
  • Inbound (non-residents travelling in a given country)
  • Outbound (residents of one country travelling in another country)

Excursionists on the other hand are considered same-day visitors (UNWTO, 2020). Sometimes referred to as “day trippers.” Understandably, not every visitor stays in a destination overnight. It is common for travellers to spend a few hours or less to do sightseeing, visit attractions, dine at a local restaurant, then leave at the end of the day.

The scope of tourism, therefore, is broad and encompasses a number of activities and sectors.

Spotlight On: United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

UNWTO is the United Nations agency responsible “for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism” (UNWTO, 2014b). Its membership includes 159 countries and over 500 affiliates such as private companies, research and educational institutions, and non-governmental organizations. It promotes tourism as a way of developing communities while encouraging ethical behaviour to mitigate negative impacts. For more information, visit the UNWTO website .

NAICS: The North American Industry Classification System

Given the sheer size of the tourism industry, it can be helpful to break it down into broad industry groups using a common classification system. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was jointly created by the Canadian, US, and Mexican governments to ensure common analysis across all three countries (British Columbia Ministry of Jobs, Tourism and Skills Training, 2013a). The tourism-related groupings created using NAICS are (in alphabetical order):

  • Accommodation
  • Food and beverage services (commonly known as “F & B”)
  • Recreation and entertainment
  • Transportation
  • Travel services

These industry groups (also commonly known as sectors) are based on the similarity of the “labour processes and inputs” used for each (Government of Canada, 2013). For instance, the types of employees and resources required to run an accommodation business whether it be a hotel, motel, or even a campground are quite similar. All these businesses need staff to check in guests, provide housekeeping, employ maintenance workers, and provide a place for people to sleep. As such, they can be grouped together under the heading of accommodation. The same is true of the other four groupings, and the rest of this text explores these industry groups, and other aspects of tourism, in more detail.

Two female front desk employees speak to a male guest in a hotel lobby.

It is typical for the entire tourist experience to involve more than one sector. The combination of sectors that supply and distribute the needed tourism products, services, and activities within the tourism system is called the Tourism Supply Chain. Often, these chains of sectors and activities are dependent upon each other’s delivery of products and services. Let’s look at a simple example below that describes the involved and sometimes overlapping sectoral chains in the tourism experience:

Tourism supply chain. Long description available.

Before we seek to understand the five tourism sectors in more detail, it’s important to have an overview of the history and impacts of tourism to date.

Long Descriptions

Figure 1.2 long description: Diagram showing the tourism supply chain. This includes the phases of travel and the sectors and activities involved during each phase.

There are three travel phases: pre-departure, during travel, and post-departure.

Pre-departure, tourists use the travel services and transportation sectors.

During travel, tourists use the travel services, accommodations, food and beverage, recreation and entertainment, and transportation sectors.

Post-departure, tourists use the transportation sector.

[Return to Figure 1.2]

Media Attributions

  • Front Desk by Staying LEVEL is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 Licence .

Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC - 2nd Edition Copyright © 2015, 2020, 2021 by Morgan Westcott and Wendy Anderson, Eds is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Tourism: Meaning, Types, Nature, Components & Importance

Meaning of tourism.

Tourism refers to social, cultural and economic phenomenon entailing the movement of people to foreign countries or places outside their usual environment for leisure or business motives. It is simply an act of travelling to places away from your hometown or usual area. It is quite interesting and thrilled filled activity that peoples have either done or would love to do it. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that together provides better travel experience to peoples travelling away from their home. It comprises of transportation, eating and drinking establishments, accommodation, entertainment, retail shops and other hospitality services provided either to individuals or group of travellers. 

The World Tourism Organization (WTO) has specially defined tourism as a practice of travelling and staying away from your home or usual environment for 1 year or less in case if it is for leisure purposes, or for 24 hours or less if meant for business/professional purposes. Tourism concept is distinct from travel. In order for tourism to happen, some displacement must be there: a person has to travel using any mode of transportation (person can even travel on foot that is nowadays the case for poorest societies and happens even in more developed countries). Also, not all travels can be considered as tourism.

Types Of Tourism

Tourism is mainly of two types based on the purpose of visit and alternative forms of tourism. It can be categorized as international and domestic tourism. 

International tourism involves people travelling outside the boundary of their home country to some other foreign country. For travelling to foreign country, one need to go through several formalities and require documents such as valid passport, visa, foreign exchange, health documents etc. It is also divided into 2 types: Inbound Tourism and Outbound Tourism. 

Inbound Tourism: Inbound tourism refers to tourist belonging to some outside country entering a particular country. Travelling outside the home country to some another country is categorised as inbound tourism for the country where people are travelling. Like for example, when Indian origin tourists travel to Australia, then it will inbound tourism for Australia as foreign tourists have entered the country. 

Outbound Tourism: This refers to people travelling from their origin country to some different country. When tourists move to some foreign place, then it is categorized as outbound tourism for their own country as they are going outside their home country. For example, when Indian tourists travel to Australia, then it will be outbound tourism for India and inbound tourism for Australia. 

Domestic Tourism refers to tourism activities of people within their home country. When people travel to different parts of their home country, then it is covered under the domestic tourism. Travelling within the home country is easier because it does not need formal travel documents and tedious formalities such as compulsory health check-ups and foreign exchange. People when travelling domestically does not face much language issues or foreign exchange issues unlike in case of foreign travels. 

Nature of Tourism

The nature of tourism is much connected with travelling. It has been the human phenomenon since the beginning of human civilization. This is a sensitive factor for human nature in terms of moving to survive, explore and get to know the unknown things. Humans started travelling as nomads for search of prey and foods, in earlier times. Later on, the agricultural development developed the base for movement of peoples as traveller. After this the industrial revolution made various destinations prominent to travelling. This made the lifestyle of traveller much easier as well as safe to realize their tourism activities. Nature of tourism is further discussed in points below: – 

Tourism and service

Tourism is a service industry comprising of all those sectors of economy that are involved in offering services such as transportation, accommodation, food, beverage, as well as distribution and sales services. The tourism industry has been taken as term of economic growth, productivity, social development, employments income, etc. However, it does not produce any commodity that can be touched or taken home. Therefore, tourism is a hospitality industry and bridge in between peoples. It makes valuable contribution to world’s economy via offering jobs to more and more people than any other industry. 

Tourism is economy contributor

With the help of tourism business, a lot of income is generated within economy in the form of domestic or foreign exchange. A large population gets employed in this industry. Tourism industry is a major contributor to public revenue. Also, nature too can be tapped and friendly relations with other countries can lead to provide benefits for economy. 

Tourism products are highly perishable

The tourism products cannot be transported to customer location. Customers need to move to the products or visit the points of service delivery. For example, hotel rooms, culture, attraction is not possible to be transported from Sri Lanka. ‘Export’ or ‘Export of tourism products’ denote the arrival of tourists or facilities utilized by tourists. 

Tourism assists in educating the mass

Tourism industry plays an effective role in spreading ideas and knowledge among mass population. There is a spontaneous method of learning and exchange of ideas in this industry. Exploration and discovery scope is very high among the adventure tourists. Also, because of tourism, respect for each other’s own life exists. 

Tourism industry is sustainable

There is not any horizon or end to tourism activities. Tourism industry is a long-term industry. It represents non-stop movement of peoples and this incessant move give rise to more and more tourism activities. 

Components of Tourism

Tourism does not operate in isolation, but contains some components without whom it can’t be operated. Tour undertaken by person is affected by distinct elements or components. These components are core parts of tourism and are known as 4 A’s of tourism. 

The four components are: Attraction, Accessibility, Accommodation and Amenities. 

Attraction is considered as the most important component of tourism that creates desire among people to make visits to a specific place or destination. It is anything influencing or inspiring people to make visit/travel. Every country has different type of attraction that attracts in large number of tourists. The lack of attraction cannot pull travellers. Attraction is all those elements, that determines the tourist’s choice to visit one place over others. Peoples can be attracted by different attraction such as trekking, sunrise, waterfall, monument, historical building, cultural sites, national parks, beach resort, flora and fauna, scenic beauty, religious sites etc. The attraction creates flow of tourism to particular area/place and act as magnetic power on pull factor of tourism. 

Attraction can also be classified into two ways: – 

– Core Attraction : Core attraction denotes the basic assets or attributes of particular place/destination. This makes up the main theme of destination. Core attraction may be natural or man-made, cultural recreations, historic or spectator events. 

– Supporting Attraction : It includes the facilities and services that serve the needs of travellers lodging, food service, shopping and local transport, foreign currency exchange and so on. Also, the success of every tourism destination depends not only on its power to attract visitors but also on its ability to hold them. Therefore, a destination must have sufficient attraction such that it is appealing to wider market.

Accessibility

Accessibility is also key component of tourism that denotes reachability to place of destination via distinct modes of transportation. It is simply the way through which tourists can easily reach their destination point. An attraction is not only necessary but it should also be accessible. Tourists reach the place of attraction by using the means of transportation. Therefore, transportation services should be regular, economic, comfortable and safe, as if travel services are better then more will be the tourists coming. Transportation is very crucial and if tourism destination lacks transport facilities, it becomes of little value. 

The passenger transport is categorized into public or private, international air and surface, etc.

– Air Transport : Air transport is the fastest growing means of long-distance tourist transport and served as primary means of transport on many routes. 

– Sea Transport : It plays a major role on short sea routes, waterways and for cruises. 

– Rail Transport : Rail Transport is good for both short and medium distance within the home country or in-between different countries. This assist in reaching destination or for movements at destination. 

More and more tourists will visit a place if it has good modes of transportation available. For example, if we compare rara lake and phewa lake- Rara lake is beautiful destination in western Nepal but only few tourists visit this place due to transportation problem. Whereas, phewa lake is visited by millions of people due to the availability of good transportation.

Accommodation

Accommodation is another component of tourism which is a primary service needed by tourists at the place of destination. It has important role to play in influencing the tourists to choose destination. Accommodation denotes a place where travellers get food and shelter to stay. The tourists can stay in distinct types of accommodation such as staying with relatives, friends, other private accommodation and their own means of accommodation such as tent and caravans. This also include the provision of food and beverages for tourists. 

Tourism arises from the movement of people and stay at the place of destination. Accommodation complements the attraction and every tourist want such accommodation where they can stay comfortably and served good food. They give more priorities to place with good accommodation having all facilities such as hotel, lodges, apartment, bar and restaurant. A huge amount of investments are needed on accommodation that are designed as per the paying capacity of tourists. A well-designed accommodation at nice location with all facilities is also attraction. Tourist must spend at least one night on destination; therefore, accommodation is important. No one is going to visit a place with attraction and accessibility, but no accommodation. 

Amenities are yet another important component of tourism that are extra facilities like service added with attraction, accessibility and accommodation in order to create tourism. They on their own does not generate any tourist flow but their absence may distract the tourists. Amenities are basically the elements which provide pleasure and satisfaction to tourists from destination. Modern amenities are primary elements of tourism and are provided by government, hotel, airlines, travel agencies etc. Different amenities that government provides are visa, entry to archaeological and cultural sites, mountaineering permit, custom facilities etc. The necessary service and facilities for making guest feel comfortable while travelling such as food, rest, sport, communication and entertainment are also included within amenities. For example, sea side resort offer facilities such as swimming, yachting, boating, recreation.

Amenities are both natural and man-made where natural amenities comprise of fishing, trekking, beaches, climbing, viewing, and man-made amenities comprises of cinema, internet, telephone, drama, music, fair and festival, E-mail and fax service.

Importance of Tourism

The tourism industry is important due to the benefits it brings and its role as a commercial activity that creates demand and development for many more industries. Tourism not only contributes towards the economic development, but also generates large number of employment opportunities and revenues. The importance of tourism is well-discussed in points given below: – 

Brings in Influx of Wealth

The biggest advantage tourism provides to every country it that it provides way to economy for receiving influx of wealth. This thing becomes very crucial for nations with newer and weaker economies, and requires the boost. There are numerous countries in Africa that especially need this, and are heavily dependent on tourism sector. Tourists travelling from strong economy countries provide foreign cash that is much stronger than the currency of weak economy countries. This in turn means that tourists are willing to spend more, considering the strength of their money in particular area. Of course, this will bring in more benefits for country. The money spend by tourists not only goes to popular tourist destination and activities, that funds local tour operators and small ventures, but also goes at their general stay.

Large job opportunities

One of the best advantages of tourism industry is that it provides large employment opportunities for locals. Creation of jobs is the most obvious benefit provided to every country. This got spread throughout all industries, from pilots flying the planes for connecting countries to the people washing utensils in restaurant kitchens. Rise of customers during tourist peak season within the wide range of business fields provide enormous benefits. Tourism too creates new jobs for local peoples within the countries, paving the way for opening of new locally run business. More jobs are created from these new businesses both within the travel and tourism sector. 

Building infrastructure

An important benefit of tourism industry is construction and improvement of infrastructural facilities within the country. With the help of wealth inflow from tourists and local communities, large expenses for building up of roads, school, parks, hospital and community areas can be easily afforded. A booming tourism industry won’t be able to survive in country having absence of right infrastructure, as tourists face difficulties in moving around and there won’t be much activities available. For example, if country’s roads are badly damaged and cannot be driven on then tourist won’t be able to move to places where they want to. 

Source of diverse income

Most of the countries are heavily reliant on different industries operating within them, and when these industries fall short then entire economy broke down. Tourism is one of the industries that is much reliable and provides regular flow of income to countries. This means that sometimes the main industry of country can be tourism industry. Tourism remains heavy unlike the other one that changes with seasons. The tourism industry helps in easing the strain caused by suffering industries, and assist in minimizing the massive negative effect this has on overall economy of country. 

Environmental protection

The environmental health is nowadays taken seriously by entire world. Due to this, there is a demand for destinations to be environment friendly. Business involved in tourism activities are taking efforts to make themselves stand out by being more responsible to environment offering eco-tours. These businesses then impact the wellness of environment and improves ways of treating massive habitats. Now, key natural areas remain unharmed and conserved due to their value to tourism industry. Practice of eco-friendly tours and accommodations motivate tourists to respect the untouched sites they are visiting, that helps in keeping these sites and their inhabitants unharmed.

Gender equality

Women fill up the majority of positions in tourism industry among most parts of the world. Unfortunately, they tend to hold more jobs at lower designations and many of them even perform unpaid jobs in their family tourism businesses. That said, the gap in wages is smaller as per the UN Women. Women are earning 14.7% less as compared to men and fill more management roles than in other fields. Tourism industry carries lots of opportunities and strategies that has great potential to further empower women. 

Preserves heritage

Another important advantage of tourism is the preservation of culture and heritage. There are lots of tourist who visit the destination specially to see the local heritage. And due to this, many destinations will take all possible steps to preserve their heritage. This can involve putting restrictions in place or limiting the number of tourists, if necessary. It is also an example of careful planning of tourism and sustainable management of tourism.

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What is a Tourist Service and why does it matter?

‘Tourist Services’ under the Package Travel Regulations 2018

In this article, Nick Parkinson , Associate at Travlaw, discusses the importance of understanding what constitutes a ‘tourist service’ for the purpose of the Package Travel Regulations 2018 , a regulation which is of course at the very heart of the Travel & Leisure industry.

We are often asked by our clients whether any of the services they are providing would be regarded as ‘tourist services’ for the purpose of the Package Travel Regulations.  As if often the case, there are some clear cut examples, but there are also some ‘grey areas’.

  Why Does it Matter What A ‘Tourist Service’ Is?

The term ‘tourist service’ is not a new concept.  It appeared in the old Package Travel Regulations from 1992, and survives in the current 2018 Package Travel Regulations (‘the PTRs’).  However, it continues to cause a lot of confusion for the travel industry.

The main reason why this concept is so important is because it is one of the factors that will determine whether or not a holiday will be treated as a ‘package’.  Potentially, travel companies could be selling package holidays without realising it, and committing a criminal offence in the process!

The importance of understanding what could amount to a ‘tourist service’ does not stop there.  Let’s say that you are already selling a package (e.g. flight and hotel) and you throw in a ‘tourist service’ on top.  In doing that, you will be liable for anything that goes wrong during that ‘tourist service’.  Accidents inevitably occur from time to time even in low risk scenarios, such as a tourist bus being involved in a road traffic accident.  It is vital, therefore, to make sure that you are adequately covered under your public liability insurance policy.

We should quickly recap on what constitutes a package.

What is a ‘Package’?

Keeping it simple, a package holiday will be created when a travel company supplies at least two different services from the following categories of ‘travel services’:

  • Carriage (e.g. flights, trains, cruise ship)
  • Accommodation
  • Rental of motor vehicles
  • Tourist Services

The first thing to clarify is that, for example, simply supplying accommodation at two different hotels would not create a package.  The two services need to be from different categories.  

The traditional package that we think of would consist of a flight and accommodation, but any combination of two items from the above list would constitute a package.  However, the difficulty comes where a travel company generally sells only one of these services but then decide to start including ‘extras’.  The question is whether these ‘extras’ would be considered as ‘tourist service’.  If so, all of a sudden we are selling a regulated ‘package holiday’!

We should therefore take a look at the definition of a ‘tourist service’

What is a ‘Tourist Service’?

Tourist services are not defined by the PTRs.  Good start!  The PTRs do, however, tell us two important things about what kind of tourist services will be caught by the PTRs. 

Firstly, we can disregard tourist services that are an ‘intrinsic part of the travel services’ (i.e. flights, accommodation or car rental).  Secondly, any other tourist services will be caught by the PTRs if either:

  • They account for a significant proportion of the total value of the travel services, or
  • They represent an essential feature of the trip or holiday, or
  • They are advertised as an essential feature of the trip or holiday,

There are quite a few words for lawyers to scrutinise here.  What does ‘intrinsic’ mean? What is a significant proportion? What would be an essential feature?  Finally, what is a ‘tourist service’ as opposed to ‘any other service’?

Let’s work our way through the above using two examples.  These examples are entirely typical with the kind of queries that we have had over the last year or so.

Rome – including tickets for the Colosseum and Vatican

Let’s say we are offering accommodation in Rome at £1,000 for a week.  Included in the price are entry tickets to two of the major tourist attractions in the city.  These tickets are worth £100. 

If the tickets are a ‘tourist service’ for the purpose of the PTRs, then we are now supplying a package holiday and not just accommodation.  To find out if the tickets do constitute a ‘tourist service’ we need to ask ourselves up to 3 questions:

  • Is it a tourist service? Yes, sightseeing is clearly a ‘tourist activity’
  • Are they an intrinsic (essential) part of the travel services? No
  • Does it account for a significant proportion of the holiday? No
  • Was it advertised an essential feature of the holiday? That depends
  • Does it otherwise represent an essential feature of the holiday? Probably not

Questions 1 and 2 are fairly straight forward, but question 3 is worthy of further explanation.

What is a ‘significant proportion’?

The PTRs, surprisingly, do not elaborate on what would constitute a ‘significant proportion’ of the holiday. The answer, however, is hidden away at para 18 of EU Directive 2015/2302 (‘the EU Directive’), being the EU legislation that required the UK to implement the PTRs in the first place.  The explanation in the EU Directive, unlike the PTRs, is clearly set out.  If any tourist services account for 25% or more of the total travel services, that would be a significant proportion .  With tickets costing only £100 against a holiday costing £1,000, we are well below that threshold in this example.

So far, it is not looking like the tickets would be deemed to be a ‘tourist service’ under the PTRs, but it gets a muddy at question 4.

How does the ‘essential feature’ test work?

This can get tricky.  Visiting a couple of ‘major attractions’ is not essential to a trip to Rome.  After all, there are plenty of other things to do in Rome!  So the tickets probably do not represent an essential feature of the trip or holiday.  However, if a big ‘song and dance’ is made about these trips in any marketing materials, there is a real risk that it could be said that it has been advertised as an essential feature.  If so, it will be deemed to be one of the kinds of tourist services that are caught by the PTRs, thus we have now supplied a package holiday and not just accommodation!

Alternatively, had the sight seeing tickets been worth £250, it wouldn’t matter if or how it was advertised because that would be over 25% of the total cost of the holiday – thus deeming it a tourist service.

Let’s consider a second example.

A irport Parking

Let’s say airport parking is ‘thrown in’ with the cost of a return flight from London to Glasgow. The total cost is £100, but the parking is worth £30.  Again, let’s work our way through the same 4 questions about the airport parking:

  • Is it a tourist service? Hmm…
  • Are they an intrinsic (essential) part of the travel services? Probably not.
  • Does it account for a significant proportion of the holiday? Yes. It is worth 30% of the total cost of the trip, i.e. more than 25%
  • Was it advertised an essential feature of the holiday? Unlikely (but it doesn’t matter having already ticked the 25% box)
  • Does it otherwise represent an essential feature of the holiday? Unlikely (but it doesn’t matter having already ticked the 25% box)

This time, question 3 is fairly straightforward whereas questions 1 and 2 are worthy of a bit more consideration.

What is an ‘intrinsic’ part of the travel services?

Under question 2,  there may be potential for lawyers to argue about what ‘intrinsic’ means.  However, my view is that it would have to be something that is not only within the process of air travel, but that is also essential in order to travel by air. 

Applying that interpretation:

  • Any services provided before check-in at the airport, or after passing through the arrival gates, would automatically be excluded. That would exclude airport parking, or say a ‘free local sim card’ for your phone on arrival.  They are not even within the process of air travel, let alone essential to it
  • As to any services that are within the process of air travel, only the essential ones would be caught by the Regulations. So a bus transfer from the gate to the aircraft would be covered, whereas a VIP luxury lounge pass with a glass of champagne would not!

In this scenario, the main focus will be on the first question.  Is airport parking a ‘tourist service’ to start with?  If so, then it will be one of the kinds of tourist services that are caught by the PTRs (because it seems to ticks all of the other boxes at questions 2 & 3 above).

What is a ‘tourist service’?

Although the PTRs do not define what a ‘tourist service’ is, once again we are given some guidance from our old friend, the EU Directive.  The EU Directive does not define a tourist service either, but (at recital 18) it does at least confirm that the following may be tourist services:  admission to concerts, sport events, excursions or event parks, guided tours, ski passes and rental of sports equipment such as skiing equipment, or spa treatments

Parking is not on the list. Great!  However, can we confidently say that this is therefore not a tourist service?  This question seems to split the lawyers right down the middle!

My view on ‘what is a tourist service’?

In my view, I would lean towards saying that parking is not a ‘tourist service’ to start with, for which I can put forward four arguments in support:

  • The examples from the EU Directive are all leisure based activities that tourists typically partake on holiday. Parking is merely a ‘means to an end’ and, although it may not be an intrinsic (or essential) part of air travel, it seems much closer related to that than any of the examples of fun filled activities to be enjoyed at the destination as listed in the EU Directive.
  • Surely, not every single service a tourist receives during a trip or holiday would be regarded as a ‘tourist service’? If it did, that would render the word ‘tourist’ in the phrase ‘tourist service’ meaningless.  For example, if a tourist receives a McDonalds after visiting a museum, surely that would not be a ‘tourist service’, albeit it is a service that just happened to have been provided to a tourist whilst doing ‘touristy activities’.   
  • The EU Directive (recital 5) states that, although the purpose of the legislation is for consumer protection, it must also ‘strike the right balance between that and the competitiveness of businesses’. For flight only sales to suddenly become ‘packages’ just because airport parking is thrown in, sounds like a step too far to me!  By the same token, the example of a ‘sim card for the local country’ provided on arrival could also potentially convert a ‘flight only’ sale to a package.
  • The EU Directive does not even say that the examples provided are definitely ‘tourist services’, rather it says that they ‘may be’. This suggests that it will depend on the circumstances (it is indicative rather than prescriptive).  This point is less significant for this example, because parking is not on the list anyway, but ‘even if it were’ on the list – it still wouldn’t be a foregone conclusion.  So this point is less important for parking.  It could, however, be of more interest in other scenarios.

The Alternative Point of View

As stated, I would lean towards saying that parking is not a ‘tourist service’ for the reasons above, but this is a question that often splits lawyers down the middle.  Arguments to the contrary may be:

  • Airport parking is clearly a service catering for travellers, a large proportion of which are tourists. If the customer that books airport parking happens to be a tourist, it seems entirely plausible to construe that as a ‘tourist service’.
  • The objectives of the Directive are geared around ensuring a ‘high level of consumer protection’ (see recital 6 and others). If referrals to the European Court of Justice (CJEU) in respect of claims under Regulation 261 are anything to go by, one would anticipate that there is a good chance that any referral to the CJEU as to the scope of ‘tourist service’ may be a ‘consumer friendly one’

Other Common Scenarios

You may be forgiven for feeling a bit dizzy right now.  So here are some other examples that illustrate the range of scenarios that we are often asked about:

  • Skiing holidays (accommodation and ski-slope pass)?
  • Murder Mystery Weekend in Barnsley?
  • Business Conferences with accommodation?
  • Business Conferences with accommodation & an afternoon of sightseeing?
  • Education (e.g. school trips, or exchange programs for language students)?

Some of these questions are much easier to answer than others!

Conclusions

As is often the case, some things are clear cut but there are always grey areas.  The law makers seem to like giving the lawyers things to argue about, and there is no shortage of things to argue about when it comes to the PTRs.  If in doubt, make sure you seek legal advice.  And, of course, there are no better lawyers to give you advice on travel & leisure related issues than the team at Travlaw!

Have a Query? Get In Touch

Navigating through the Package Travel Regulations can, of course, be a daunting prospect at times and the consequences of ‘getting it wrong’ could be significant.  Nobody wants to commit a criminal offence by selling packages without realising it!

We do, however, have a fantastic team here at Travlaw who can cover the needs of your business whether that be in relation to the PTRs, disputes, employment issues, drafting T&C’s, compliance, or even Brexit!  Indeed, we act for numerous tour operators, travel agents, hotels, airlines all over the world and we would be delighted to discuss the PTRs, or indeed any travel law related issue that affects your business. 

Feel free to contact the author of this article  [email protected]  or any other member of the Travlaw team on 0113 258 0033 or at  [email protected] .

This article was originally published on: 22 January 2020

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Tourism Marketing

Travel and tourism marketing is the systematic and coordinated execution of business policies by the both private or public and public sector tourism organizations operating at the local, regional, national, or international level to achieve the optimal satisfaction of the needs of identifiable tourist groups, and in doing so to achieve an appropriate return .

Travel agencies in the pre-deregulation, pre-liberalization, and pre-globalization era were often contended to take whatever business that come along this way and sold them on a straight commission basis without bothering about the extensive marketing. Moreover, their scope of the operation was small and was not much complex, sophisticated and competitive.

But today the travel companies are becoming larger, more sophisticated and more automated in management.  Similarly, the clients/tourists are also becoming more trained, experienced, erudite and demanding higher quality services and packages.

Therefore, in this volatile travel business environment, marketing knowledge and skill are more necessary ingredients than the product knowledge and enthusiasm, for a travel agency’s long-term survival and growth. Thus, this has led to the use of tourism marketing which is recent phenomena.

History of Tourism Marketing

The ‘ marketing concept ‘ is not very old. I came into the scene in the 2nd half of the 20th century. In the beginning, it was linked with the number of closely associated factors for achieving volume sales.

The development of the marketing concept, in fact, is the outcome of political, technological, social, economic and business pressures. However, the importance of marketing within travel and tourism industry has been the level of economic and business growth throughout the 20th century, which has led to the improvement in living standards, an enlargement of the population and an increase in discretionary income and time.

These changes have also led to the construction of infrastructure, accommodation, transport , and other recreational facilities. Within a very short period, travel and tourism have become one of the most important and leading industry in the world.

Modern tourism marketing has evolved as a business reaction to changes in the Socio-Economic environment, with the most successful tourism companies or tourism bodies have demonstrated a keen sense of providing the right of organizational structure and products offer for the visitors/tourists.

Interestingly, the tourism companies have recognized the significance of key factors such as needs, wants, and satisfaction in the planning and designing of the tourism product. In the tourism industry, every tourist wants to be treated as a special client and any organization catering to this attitude of the tourist will naturally be head of other competitions.

Definitions of Tourism Marketing

According to Kotler, ” Marketing is a social and managerial process by which consumers obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging product services and values with other .” He has emphasized more on wants, needs, satisfaction, demand, and marketers.

According to the British Chartered Institute of Marketing, ” It is the management process responsible for the identification, anticipating, assessing and satisfying the customer’s client’s requirements profitable .”

The modern marketing concept is not limited only to the identification and satisfaction of customers. It is a comprehensive process which encompasses research and analysis of society’s as well as consumer’s needs, asserts the company’s resources and marketplace and delivers the products/services to those whose experience provides a set of satisfactions which are preferable to those of the competitors.

Krippendorf defines tourism marketing,” as the systematic and coordinated execution of business policies by both private or public sector tourism organizations operated at the local, regional, national, or international level to achieve the optimal satisfaction of the needs of identifiable tourist groups, and in doing so to achieve an appropriate return .”

According to Paynter (1993), ” tour marketing is a systematic process consisting of marketing objective, strategies, schedules, marketing media, focused on the specific market segment and based on a substantial return on investment. ”

World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) at Ottawa Seminar, has defined tourism marketing as,” a management philosophy which, in the light of tourist demand, makes it possible through research, forecasting and selection of tourism products/services from suppliers, on the line with organization’s purpose and tourist satisfaction .”

The following aspects can be identified from the above definitions:

  • Tourism marketing is a thought-provoking process.
  • Identification and selection of the target market.
  • Positioning and product lifecycle is important.
  • Future tourism marketing strategies.
  • Innovative/proactive marketing.

Unique Features of Tourism Marketing

Tour package as a specialized product creates a number of significant considerations which need to be fully analyzed. The management of tour package cannot be divorced from the management of service and quality. Thus, the marketing of the tour package is different from other products because the tour package is a service product where instead of selling physical goods an intangible experience is sold.

An understanding of the complexity of the tourism product concept is an essential pre-requisite for effective tour package marketing in this context. The specific features of tourism marketing are:

  • The demand for tour package is highly elastic and seasonal in nature.
  • Tour package is a combination of various service ingredient.
  • Designing, developing and marketing of tour package a number of intermediaries are involved. Bed experience at one level can spoil the entire image of the package as well as the tour operator .
  • A tourist does not only by the tour package in advance because it is consumed and felt at the same time at a particular destination.

It is not possible to evaluate/demonstrate/sample the tour package in advance because it is consumed and felt at the same time at a particular destination.

Tour Package Marketing

A tour marketing plan is a structured guide for carrying out marketing operations. It provides a common structure and focuses on all the company’s management activities. The purposes of a marketing plan include:

  • It provides a clear direction for marketing operations.
  • It coordinates the resources of the organization in order to eliminate confusion and misunderstanding and achieving cooperation.
  • Identifying different market segments.
  • Setting targets/goals.
  • Identifying the organization’s strengths and weaknesses.
  • Corporate mission and goals.
  • External and Internal Audit.
  • Business situation analysis.
  • Creating the objectives.
  • Providing an effective marketing mix strategy.
  • Monitoring the plan.

Thus, it has become imperative to discuss the tour marketing segment, tourist generating market, and tour marketing mix before developing a tour marketing plan.

Tour Market Segmentation

It involves a division of the prospective market into identifiable groups. The reasoning behind this is that a tour package can be sold more effectively if efforts are concentrated towards those groups which are most potential.

According to Middleton, “ Market segmentation is the process whereby producers organize their knowledge of customer groups and select for particular attention those whose needs and wants they are best able to meet their product .”

The main purpose of tour market segmentation in tourism marketing are:

  • Segment the tourists generating markets.
  • Identify the network of intermediaries.
  • Identify the nature of demand for one’s product.
  • Identify the prospective tourists.

An effective market strategy will determine exactly what the target market will be and to attempt to reach only those markets. The target market is that segment of a total potential market to which the tourist attraction would be most saleable.

Targets markets are defined geographically, demographically and so forth market segmentation must be employed in the marketing programmes to both the long-term strategies. Every tourism attraction can appeal to a multitude of market segments, and the market segment can overlap a great deal. The tour manager must look at market segments and determines which one offer the promising potential for his/her service.

Tour market segment further categories into the following types:

  • Geographic Segment
  • Demographic Segment
  • Psychographic Segment
  • Socio-Economic Segment
  • Price Segment

Geographic Tourism Market Segmentation

This segment is based on the idea that customer needs differ according to geographic regions.

Demographic Segmentation

Under this segmentation, the tourism market is divided into various groups, keeping in view the demographic variables such as age, income, sex family size, occupation, education, religion etc.

Behavioral Segmentation

In this segmentation, prospective tourists are segmented on the basis of their knowledge, attitude, use or response to the tour product. Under this segmentation, the marketing strategies of a four-company include:

  • User Status
  • Loyalty Status
  • Buyer Readiness Stages

Psychographic Segmentation

Under this, the tourists are divided into different group on the basis of their social status, lifestyles, and personality characteristics. For example, upper class, upper middle, lower classes, product preferences, adventure sports, etc.

Price Segmentation

Price ranges often come in handy in segmenting the tourist markets, such as

  • Those who want to take a low priced vacation.
  • Those who may take a moderately priced vacation.

Price ranges communicate to the tourists the quality expectation of a product along with the producer’s image. While determining the price of a tour package a tour planner must understand the paying capacity of the tourist.

Tour Marketing Mix

In the competitive tourism marketplace, a tour operator can be successful if it’s complete marketing mix offer matches what the tourist wants. It is planned and coordinated by marketers so that the input can be contributed in such a way that the company will be able to maximize demand and satisfaction of the tourists.

The concept of the tour marketing mix is equally relevant in the case of tourism products as it is in the case of other services and goods. Tour marketing manager must constantly search for the right marketing mix, the right combination of elements that will produce a profit. The marketing mix is composed of every factor that influences marketing efforts such as:

  • BrandsPricing – In the Ratio of quality and value
  • Product features
  • Channels of distribution – both international and national
  • Advertising
  • Selling techniques
  • Public relation

The fundamental starting point for the creation of a successful tour marketing mix to ensure that the target market is clearly defined. The target market is the focus of all marketing mix activities. Generally, the marketing mix constitutes four P’s . These four P’s are following as:

However, besides these four P’s in the tourism industry fifth P – People, Process, Physical evidence is also of most relevance.

Developing Tour Marketing Plan

The marketing of the package tour is materially different than the marketing of other tourism products. The reasoning behind this is that the type of tours offered by one tour company and another are different, and the marketing strategies also differ from company to company.

Each company has a wide range of tours and marketing strategies. No other travel and tourism industry component have such a wide range of specialization.

This fact should be recognized, that the effective and profitable marketing strategies are based on the tour marketing plan which is a complete ‘mechanism’ for the success of a tour company. The mechanism includes several components. These component and stages of making a tourism marketing plan are following as:

Developing a tour marketing plan

Marketing Budget

Plan Strategies

Prepare Plan Schedules

Decide Media Plan

Developing Advertising Plan

Developing Public Relation Plan

Preparing an Annual Sales Plan

Feedback and Evaluation Plan

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Chapter 7. Travel Services

7.3 Tourism Services

Many organizations can have a hand in tourism development. These include:

  • Sector-specific associations
  • Tourism and hospitality human resources organizations
  • Training providers
  • Educational institutions
  • Government branches and ministries in land use, planning, development, environmental, transportation, consumer protection, and other related fields
  • Economic development and city planning offices

Consultants

The rest of this section describes Canadian and BC-based examples of these.

Sector-Specific Associations

Numerous not-for-profit and arm’s-length organizations drive the growth of specific segments of our industry. Examples of these associations can be found throughout this textbook in the Spotlight On features, and include groups like:

  • BC Hotel Association
  • Sea Kayak Guides Alliance of BC
  • Restaurants Canada

These can serve as regulatory bodies, advocacy agencies, certification providers, and information sources.

Tourism and Hospitality Human Resource Support

Tourism HR Canada — formally the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council (CTHRC) — is a national sector council responsible for best practice research, training, and other professional development support on behalf of the 174,000 tourism businesses and the 1.75 million people employed in tourism-related occupations across the country. In BC, an organization called go2HR serves to educate employers on attracting, training, and retaining employees, as well as hosts a tourism job board to match prospective employees with job options in tourism around the province.

Training Providers

Throughout this textbook, you’ll see examples of not-for-profit industry associations that provide training and certification for industry professionals. For example, the Association of Canadian Travel Agents offers a full-time and distance program to train for the occupation of certified travel counsellor. Closer to home, an organization called WorldHost, a division of Destination BC, offers world-class customer service training.

You’ll learn more about training providers and tourism human resources development in Chapter 9 .

Educational Institutions

British Columbia is home to a number of high-quality public and private colleges and universities that offer tourism-related educational options. Training options at these colleges and universities include certificates, diplomas, degrees and masters-level programs in adventure tourism, outdoor recreation, hospitality management, and tourism management. For example, whether students are learning how to manage a restaurant at Camosun College, gaining mountain adventure skills at College of the Rockies, or exploring the world of outdoor recreation and tourism management at the University of Northern BC, tomorrow’s workforce is being prepared by skilled instructors with solid industry experience.

Spotlight On: Emerit

Emerit is Canada’s award winning training resource developed by Tourism HR Canada in collaboration with tourism industry professionals from across Canada. For more information on Emerit, visit the go2HR website .

Government Departments

At the time this chapter was written, there were at least eight distinct provincial government ministries that had influence on tourism and hospitality development in British Columbia. These are:

  • Tourism, Arts, and Culture
  • Advanced Education, Skills, and Training
  • Transportation and Infrastructure
  • Environment & Climate Change Strategy
  • Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations & Rural Development
  • Indigenous Relations & Reconciliation
  • Jobs, Economic Development, & Competitiveness
  • Public Safety & Solicitor General

Ministry names and responsibilities may change over time, but the functions performed by provincial ministries are critical to tourism operators and communities, as are the functions of similar departments at the federal level.

At the community level, tourism functions are often performed by planning officers, economic development officers, and chambers of commerce.

A final, hidden layer to the travel services sector is that of independent consultants and consulting firms. These people and companies offer services to the industry in a business-to-business format, and they vary from individuals to small-scale firms to international companies. In BC, tourism-based consulting firms include:

  • IntraVISTAS: specializing in aviation and transportation logistics advising
  • Chemistry Consulting: specializing in human relations and labour market development
  • Beattie Tartan: a public-relations and reputation management firm

For many people trained in specific industry fields, consulting offers the opportunity to give back to the industry while maintaining workload flexibility.

Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC - 2nd Edition Copyright © 2015, 2020, 2021 by Morgan Westcott and Wendy Anderson, Eds is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Travel, Tourism & Hospitality

Global tourism industry - statistics & facts

What are the leading global tourism destinations, digitalization of the global tourism industry, how important is sustainable tourism, key insights.

Detailed statistics

Total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP worldwide 2019-2033

Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide 1950-2023

Global leisure travel spend 2019-2022

Editor’s Picks Current statistics on this topic

Leading global travel markets by travel and tourism contribution to GDP 2019-2022

Travel and tourism employment worldwide 2019-2033

Further recommended statistics

  • Basic Statistic Total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP worldwide 2019-2033
  • Basic Statistic Travel and tourism: share of global GDP 2019-2033
  • Basic Statistic Leading global travel markets by travel and tourism contribution to GDP 2019-2022
  • Basic Statistic Global leisure travel spend 2019-2022
  • Premium Statistic Global business travel spending 2001-2022
  • Premium Statistic Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide 1950-2023
  • Basic Statistic Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide 2005-2023, by region
  • Basic Statistic Travel and tourism employment worldwide 2019-2033

Total contribution of travel and tourism to gross domestic product (GDP) worldwide in 2019 and 2022, with a forecast for 2023 and 2033 (in trillion U.S. dollars)

Travel and tourism: share of global GDP 2019-2033

Share of travel and tourism's total contribution to GDP worldwide in 2019 and 2022, with a forecast for 2023 and 2033

Total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP in leading travel markets worldwide in 2019 and 2022 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Leisure tourism spending worldwide from 2019 to 2022 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Global business travel spending 2001-2022

Expenditure of business tourists worldwide from 2001 to 2022 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide from 1950 to 2023 (in millions)

Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide 2005-2023, by region

Number of international tourist arrivals worldwide from 2005 to 2023, by region (in millions)

Number of travel and tourism jobs worldwide from 2019 to 2022, with a forecast for 2023 and 2033 (in millions)

  • Premium Statistic Global hotel and resort industry market size worldwide 2013-2023
  • Premium Statistic Most valuable hotel brands worldwide 2023, by brand value
  • Basic Statistic Leading hotel companies worldwide 2023, by number of properties
  • Premium Statistic Hotel openings worldwide 2021-2024
  • Premium Statistic Hotel room openings worldwide 2021-2024
  • Premium Statistic Countries with the most hotel construction projects in the pipeline worldwide 2022

Global hotel and resort industry market size worldwide 2013-2023

Market size of the hotel and resort industry worldwide from 2013 to 2022, with a forecast for 2023 (in trillion U.S. dollars)

Most valuable hotel brands worldwide 2023, by brand value

Leading hotel brands based on brand value worldwide in 2023 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Leading hotel companies worldwide 2023, by number of properties

Leading hotel companies worldwide as of June 2023, by number of properties

Hotel openings worldwide 2021-2024

Number of hotels opened worldwide from 2021 to 2022, with a forecast for 2023 and 2024

Hotel room openings worldwide 2021-2024

Number of hotel rooms opened worldwide from 2021 to 2022, with a forecast for 2023 and 2024

Countries with the most hotel construction projects in the pipeline worldwide 2022

Countries with the highest number of hotel construction projects in the pipeline worldwide as of Q4 2022

  • Premium Statistic Airports with the most international air passenger traffic worldwide 2022
  • Premium Statistic Market value of selected airlines worldwide 2023
  • Premium Statistic Global passenger rail users forecast 2017-2027
  • Premium Statistic Daily ridership of bus rapid transit systems worldwide by region 2023
  • Premium Statistic Number of users of car rentals worldwide 2019-2028
  • Premium Statistic Number of users in selected countries in the Car Rentals market in 2023
  • Premium Statistic Carbon footprint of international tourism transport worldwide 2005-2030, by type

Airports with the most international air passenger traffic worldwide 2022

Leading airports for international air passenger traffic in 2022 (in million international passengers)

Market value of selected airlines worldwide 2023

Market value of selected airlines worldwide as of May 2023 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Global passenger rail users forecast 2017-2027

Worldwide number of passenger rail users from 2017 to 2022, with a forecast through 2027 (in billion users)

Daily ridership of bus rapid transit systems worldwide by region 2023

Number of daily passengers using bus rapid transit (BRT) systems as of April 2023, by region

Number of users of car rentals worldwide 2019-2028

Number of users of car rentals worldwide from 2019 to 2028 (in millions)

Number of users in selected countries in the Car Rentals market in 2023

Number of users in selected countries in the Car Rentals market in 2023 (in million)

Carbon footprint of international tourism transport worldwide 2005-2030, by type

Transport-related emissions from international tourist arrivals worldwide in 2005 and 2016, with a forecast for 2030, by mode of transport (in million metric tons of carbon dioxide)

Attractions

  • Premium Statistic Leading museums by highest attendance worldwide 2019-2022
  • Basic Statistic Most visited amusement and theme parks worldwide 2019-2022
  • Basic Statistic Monuments on the UNESCO world heritage list 2023, by type
  • Basic Statistic Selected countries with the most Michelin-starred restaurants worldwide 2023

Leading museums by highest attendance worldwide 2019-2022

Most visited museums worldwide from 2019 to 2022 (in millions)

Most visited amusement and theme parks worldwide 2019-2022

Leading amusement and theme parks worldwide from 2019 to 2022, by attendance (in millions)

Monuments on the UNESCO world heritage list 2023, by type

Number of monuments on the UNESCO world heritage list as of September 2023, by type

Selected countries with the most Michelin-starred restaurants worldwide 2023

Number of Michelin-starred restaurants in selected countries and territories worldwide as of July 2023

Online travel market

  • Premium Statistic Online travel market size worldwide 2017-2028
  • Premium Statistic Estimated desktop vs. mobile revenue of leading OTAs worldwide 2023
  • Premium Statistic Number of aggregated downloads of leading online travel agency apps worldwide 2023
  • Basic Statistic Market cap of leading online travel companies worldwide 2023
  • Premium Statistic Estimated EV/Revenue ratio in the online travel market 2024, by segment
  • Premium Statistic Estimated EV/EBITDA ratio in the online travel market 2024, by segment

Online travel market size worldwide 2017-2028

Online travel market size worldwide from 2017 to 2023, with a forecast until 2028 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Estimated desktop vs. mobile revenue of leading OTAs worldwide 2023

Estimated desktop vs. mobile revenue of leading online travel agencies (OTAs) worldwide in 2023 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Number of aggregated downloads of leading online travel agency apps worldwide 2023

Number of aggregated downloads of selected leading online travel agency apps worldwide in 2023 (in millions)

Market cap of leading online travel companies worldwide 2023

Market cap of leading online travel companies worldwide as of September 2023 (in million U.S. dollars)

Estimated EV/Revenue ratio in the online travel market 2024, by segment

Estimated enterprise value to revenue (EV/Revenue) ratio in the online travel market worldwide as of April 2024, by segment

Estimated EV/EBITDA ratio in the online travel market 2024, by segment

Estimated enterprise value to EBITDA (EV/EBITDA) ratio in the online travel market worldwide as of April 2024, by segment

Selected trends

  • Premium Statistic Global travelers who believe in the importance of green travel 2023
  • Premium Statistic Sustainable initiatives travelers would adopt worldwide 2022, by region
  • Premium Statistic Airbnb revenue worldwide 2017-2023
  • Premium Statistic Airbnb nights and experiences booked worldwide 2017-2023
  • Premium Statistic Technologies global hotels plan to implement in the next three years 2022
  • Premium Statistic Hotel technologies global consumers think would improve their future stay 2022

Global travelers who believe in the importance of green travel 2023

Share of travelers that believe sustainable travel is important worldwide in 2023

Sustainable initiatives travelers would adopt worldwide 2022, by region

Main sustainable initiatives travelers are willing to adopt worldwide in 2022, by region

Airbnb revenue worldwide 2017-2023

Revenue of Airbnb worldwide from 2017 to 2023 (in billion U.S. dollars)

Airbnb nights and experiences booked worldwide 2017-2023

Nights and experiences booked with Airbnb from 2017 to 2023 (in millions)

Technologies global hotels plan to implement in the next three years 2022

Technologies hotels are most likely to implement in the next three years worldwide as of 2022

Hotel technologies global consumers think would improve their future stay 2022

Must-have hotel technologies to create a more amazing stay in the future among travelers worldwide as of 2022

  • Premium Statistic Travel and tourism revenue worldwide 2019-2028, by segment
  • Premium Statistic Distribution of sales channels in the travel and tourism market worldwide 2018-2028
  • Premium Statistic Inbound tourism visitor growth worldwide 2020-2025, by region
  • Premium Statistic Outbound tourism visitor growth worldwide 2020-2025, by region

Travel and tourism revenue worldwide 2019-2028, by segment

Revenue of the global travel and tourism market from 2019 to 2028, by segment (in billion U.S. dollars)

Distribution of sales channels in the travel and tourism market worldwide 2018-2028

Revenue share of sales channels of the travel and tourism market worldwide from 2018 to 2028

Inbound tourism visitor growth worldwide 2020-2025, by region

Inbound tourism visitor growth worldwide from 2020 to 2022, with a forecast until 2025, by region

Outbound tourism visitor growth worldwide 2020-2025, by region

Outbound tourism visitor growth worldwide from 2020 to 2022, with a forecast until 2025, by region

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COMMENTS

  1. Tourism

    tourism, the act and process of spending time away from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation, and pleasure, while making use of the commercial provision of services.As such, tourism is a product of modern social arrangements, beginning in western Europe in the 17th century, although it has antecedents in Classical antiquity.. Tourism is distinguished from exploration in that tourists ...

  2. 1.1 What is Tourism?

    Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities ...

  3. 1.1 What is Tourism?

    Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities ...

  4. Tourism

    Tourism security is a subdiscipline of tourist studies that explores the factors that affect the ontological security of tourists. Risks are evaluated by their impact and nature. Tourism security includes methodologies, theories and techniques oriented to protect the organic image of tourist destinations.

  5. What Is Tourism? A Definition Of Tourism

    Tourism is the generic term used to cover both demand and supply that has been adopted in a variety of forms and used throughout the world. Tourism essentially refers to the activities undertaken by visitors, also known as the visitor economy. The tourism industry encompasses all activity that takes place within the visitor economy.

  6. TOURISM

    TOURISM definition: 1. the business of providing services such as transport, places to stay, or entertainment for…. Learn more.

  7. Glossary of tourism terms

    Competitiveness of a tourism destination: The competitiveness of a tourism destination is the ability of the destination to use its natural, cultural, human, man-made and capital resources efficiently to develop and deliver quality, innovative, ethical and attractive tourism products and services in order to achieve a sustainable growth within ...

  8. TOURISM

    TOURISM meaning: 1. the business of providing services such as transport, places to stay, or entertainment for…. Learn more.

  9. Why Tourism?

    The contribution of tourism to economic well-being depends on the quality and the ‎revenues of the tourism offer. UN Tourism assists destinations in their sustainable ‎positioning in ever more complex national and international markets. As the UN agency ‎dedicated to tourism, UN Tourism points out that particularly developing countries ...

  10. Tourism and Culture

    This webpage provides UN Tourism resources aimed at strengthening the dialogue between tourism and culture and an informed decision-making in the sphere of cultural tourism. It also promotes the exchange of good practices showcasing inclusive management systems and innovative cultural tourism experiences.. About Cultural Tourism. According to the definition adopted by the UN Tourism General ...

  11. Chapter 7. Travel Services

    Travel Agencies. Figure 7.2 A travel agency in the United Kingdom. A travel agency is a business that operates as the intermediary between the travel industry (supplier) and the traveller (purchaser). Part of the role of the travel agency is to market prepackaged travel tours and holidays to potential travellers.

  12. Tourism

    Tourism is one of the world's fastest-growing industries and a major foreign exchange and employment generation for many countries. It is one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena. The word 'tour' is derived from the Latin word tornus, meaning 'a tool for making a circle.'. Tourism may be defined as the movement of ...

  13. Chapter 8. Services Marketing

    Effective services marketing in the tourism and hospitality sector requires marketers to gain a solid understanding of the differences between the marketing of goods and services. ... Physical evidence: In addition to familiarization tours (see Chapter 7 for definition), the media team ensures the inn is considered for a number of high-profile ...

  14. (PDF) The Tourism Industry: An Overview

    This chapter describes the main sectors within the travel, tourism and hosp itality industries. It. provides a good overview of the vertical and horizontal inter-relationships between different. 1 ...

  15. 1.1 What is Tourism?

    Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities ...

  16. Tourism as a Service: Enhancing the Tourist Experience

    The concept of Tourism as a Service (TaaS) takes inspiration from Mobility as a Service (MaaS), that is, the integration of various transport services into a standalone service the users can plan, book and pay for. MaaS provides a convenient way for more sustainable travel, helping to battle the congestion of road networks (Giesecke et al. 2016).

  17. Tourism: Meaning, Types, Nature, Components & Importance

    Tourism is a service industry comprising of all those sectors of economy that are involved in offering services such as transportation, accommodation, food, beverage, as well as distribution and sales services. The tourism industry has been taken as term of economic growth, productivity, social development, employments income, etc.

  18. Definition of Tourism and Sustainable Tourism

    Definition: Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and. environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host ...

  19. What is a Tourist Service and why does it matter?

    The term 'tourist service' is not a new concept. It appeared in the old Package Travel Regulations from 1992, and survives in the current 2018 Package Travel Regulations ('the PTRs'). However, it continues to cause a lot of confusion for the travel industry. The main reason why this concept is so important is because it is one of the ...

  20. Definition, History, Types and Tour Package Marketing

    The specific features of tourism marketing are: The demand for tour package is highly elastic and seasonal in nature. Tour package is a combination of various service ingredient. Designing, developing and marketing of tour package a number of intermediaries are involved. Bed experience at one level can spoil the entire image of the package as ...

  21. 7.3 Tourism Services

    Tourism HR Canada — formally the Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council (CTHRC) — is a national sector council responsible for best practice research, training, and other professional development support on behalf of the 174,000 tourism businesses and the 1.75 million people employed in tourism-related occupations across the country.

  22. Tourism Services Definition

    Define Tourism Services. means the following services: visitor and regional information centres; exhibition, convention and amusement complexes; heritage, tourism and cultural centres; animal parks and aquariums; guided tours and other educational services operated by local government for the benefit of tourists, visitors and the local community.

  23. Global tourism industry

    In its broadest sense, tourism is defined as when people travel and stay in places outside of their usual environment for less than one consecutive year for leisure, business, health, or other ...