Travel vaccinations

Advice about getting vaccinated before travelling abroad and information about common travel vaccines.

  • Travel vaccination advice
  • Available travel vaccines

Country-by-country advice

  • Travel Health Pro: country information travelhealthpro.org.uk
  • GOV.UK: foreign travel advice www.gov.uk

Travel health advice and travel vaccinations

You should make an appointment for a travel health risk assessment if you’re travelling abroad and think you need:

  • a malaria risk assessment
  • further advice

A travel health professional will take you through your travel health risk assessment.

Your GP is no longer your point of contact for a travel health risk assessment, including travel vaccines.

NHS travel health service

NHS Scotland provides a travel health service that includes some free vaccines.

To find information on how to make an appointment for a travel health risk assessment in Scotland, contact the NHS health board where you live.

Private travel clinics

You can also visit an independent (private) travel clinic for:

  • a travel health risk assessment
  • travel advice
  • other travel vaccines

You should arrange a travel health risk assessment 6 to 8 weeks before you travel. This gives time for any vaccines you need to become fully effective.

If your trip is sooner, remember it’s never too late to get advice.

Travel health risk assessment

If you’re planning to travel outside the UK, your travel health needs will depend on your individual situation. This includes:

  • your destination
  • how long you’ll stay
  • what you’ll be doing
  • your general health

The fitfortravel website provides country-specific advice on:

  • recommended vaccines
  • other risk prevention advice

If you think you need vaccines and/or a malaria risk assessment, you should make an appointment with a travel health professional.

A travel health risk assessment is also recommended for some people, even when vaccines or malaria tablets aren’t required. This includes:

  • older people
  • those with a weakened immune system
  • those with long-term conditions that need medications
  • pregnant women

Travel vaccines

The following travel vaccines are free on the NHS in Scotland:

  • diphtheria, polio and tetanus (combined booster)
  • hepatitis A

It’s likely that you’ll have to pay for vaccines against:

  • yellow fever
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • tick-borne encephalitis

You may also have to pay for the following vaccines if they’re only needed for travel purposes:

  • hepatitis B
  • tuberculosis (TB)

Proof of vaccination

To enter some countries you may need proof that you have had particular vaccines. This includes the yellow fever vaccine.

Yellow fever vaccines are only available from designated centres. To find out if you need a yellow fever vaccine or proof of the vaccine, you should contact a yellow fever clinic.

To request a list of any other vaccines held on your GP record, contact your GP practice. GP practices cannot provide proof of COVID vaccine.

Preventing risk while travelling

Vaccines or anti-malarial tablets will not protect against all travel health risks. This means you’ll need to take extra steps to protect your health whilst travelling abroad.

The fitfortravel website has further advice on preventing health risks whilst travelling. This includes information on:

  • general travel advice
  • disease prevention

Travelling abroad to visit friends and relatives

If you’re travelling abroad to visit friends or relatives, you may be at higher risk of developing travel-related illnesses. For example, malaria or typhoid. This could be because:

  • you may be living with the local community
  • your trip might be longer than the average holiday
  • you might be visiting more rural areas where it’s difficult to take precautions that reduce your risk

The fitfortravel website provides information and advice on visiting friends and family abroad .

Travel safety advice

You can find country-specific safety and security advice through the UK government website .

Travel insurance advice

Many countries don’t have the same access to medical treatments as the UK and can be expensive.

It’s recommended that all travellers get comprehensive travel insurance before travelling.

When you return home

If you become unwell and/or develop a fever when you return home, it’s important to get medical advice as soon as possible. You should seek medical help even if it’s up to 1 month after you’ve been travelling.

Always make sure you tell the health professional that you’ve recently travelled abroad. This is especially important if you have been to a country where malaria is a risk.

Donating blood after travelling abroad

Travel outside the UK can affect whether you can give blood donations. This is because some infections may be caught abroad. This is usually through mosquito or other insect bites.

There are conditions for donating blood if you’ve been to certain countries. This can depend on your length of stay and some other factors.

Further information on donating blood after travelling abroad

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Travel Advice and Vaccines

If you’re planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world.

Vaccinations are available to protect you against infections such as  yellow fever ,  typhoid  and  hepatitis A .

In the UK, the  NHS routine immunisation (vaccination) schedule protects you against a number of diseases, but does not cover all of the infectious diseases found overseas.

If possible, see the GP or a private travel clinic at least 6 to 8 weeks before you’re due to travel.

Some vaccines need to be given well in advance to allow your body to develop immunity.

And some vaccines involve a number of doses spread over several weeks or months.

You may be more at risk of some diseases, for example, if you’re:

– travelling in rural areas – backpacking – staying in hostels or camping – on a long trip rather than a package holiday

If you have a pre-existing health problem, this may make you more at risk of infection or complications from a travel-related illness.

You can find out which vaccinations are necessary or recommended for the areas you’ll be visiting on these websites:

Travel Health Pro

NHS Fit for Travel

Some countries require proof of vaccination (for example, for polio or yellow fever vaccination), which must be documented on an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) before you enter or when you leave a country.

Saudi Arabia requires proof of vaccination against certain types of  meningitis  for visitors arriving for the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.

Even if an ICVP is not required, it’s still a good idea to take a record of the vaccinations you have had with you.

Find out more about the vaccines available for travellers abroad

Coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination

You may need COVID-19 vaccinations to travel abroad.

Check the  foreign travel advice on GOV.UK  to find out the entry requirements of the country you’re visiting.

Find out more about the NHS COVID Pass for travel.

First, phone or visit the GP practice or practice nurse to find out whether your existing UK vaccinations are up-to-date.

If you have any records of your vaccinations, let the GP know what you have had previously.

The GP or practice nurse may be able to give you general advice about travel vaccinations and travel health, such as protecting yourself from malaria.

They can give you any missing doses of your UK vaccines if you need them.

Not all travel vaccinations are available free on the NHS, even if they’re recommended for travel to a certain area.

If the GP practice can give you the travel vaccines you need but they are not available on the NHS, ask for:

– written information on what vaccines are needed – the cost of each dose or course – any other charges you may have to pay, such as for some certificates of vaccination

You can also get travel vaccines from:

– private travel vaccination clinics – pharmacies offering travel healthcare services

The following travel vaccines are available free on the NHS from your GP surgery:

polio (given as a  combined diphtheria/tetanus/polio jab )

hepatitis A

These vaccines are free because they protect against diseases thought to represent the greatest risk to public health if they were brought into the country.

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United Kingdom, including England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland Traveler View

Travel health notices, vaccines and medicines, non-vaccine-preventable diseases, stay healthy and safe.

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After Your Trip

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Check the vaccines and medicines list and visit your doctor at least a month before your trip to get vaccines or medicines you may need. If you or your doctor need help finding a location that provides certain vaccines or medicines, visit the Find a Clinic page.

Routine vaccines

Recommendations.

Make sure you are up-to-date on all routine vaccines before every trip. Some of these vaccines include

  • Chickenpox (Varicella)
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis
  • Flu (influenza)
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)

Immunization schedules

All eligible travelers should be up to date with their COVID-19 vaccines. Please see  Your COVID-19 Vaccination  for more information. 

COVID-19 vaccine

Hepatitis A

Consider hepatitis A vaccination for most travelers. It is recommended for travelers who will be doing higher risk activities, such as visiting smaller cities, villages, or rural areas where a traveler might get infected through food or water. It is recommended for travelers who plan on eating street food.

Hepatitis A - CDC Yellow Book

Dosing info - Hep A

Hepatitis B

Recommended for unvaccinated travelers younger than 60 years old traveling to the United Kingdom. Unvaccinated travelers 60 years and older may get vaccinated before traveling to the United Kingdom.

Hepatitis B - CDC Yellow Book

Dosing info - Hep B

Cases of measles are on the rise worldwide. Travelers are at risk of measles if they have not been fully vaccinated at least two weeks prior to departure, or have not had measles in the past, and travel internationally to areas where measles is spreading.

All international travelers should be fully vaccinated against measles with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, including an early dose for infants 6–11 months, according to  CDC’s measles vaccination recommendations for international travel .

Measles (Rubeola) - CDC Yellow Book

Dogs infected with rabies are not commonly found in the United Kingdom.

If rabies exposures occur while in the United Kingdom, rabies vaccines are typically available throughout most of the country.

Rabies pre-exposure vaccination considerations include whether travelers 1) will be performing occupational or recreational activities that increase risk for exposure to potentially rabid animals and 2) might have difficulty getting prompt access to safe post-exposure prophylaxis.

Please consult with a healthcare provider to determine whether you should receive pre-exposure vaccination before travel.

For more information, see country rabies status assessments .

Rabies - CDC Yellow Book

Tick-borne Encephalitis

Avoid bug bites

Learn more about tick-borne encephalitis at your destination .

Tick-borne Encephalitis - CDC Yellow Book

Avoid contaminated water

Leptospirosis

How most people get sick (most common modes of transmission)

  • Touching urine or other body fluids from an animal infected with leptospirosis
  • Swimming or wading in urine-contaminated fresh water, or contact with urine-contaminated mud
  • Drinking water or eating food contaminated with animal urine
  • Avoid contaminated water and soil
  • Avoid floodwater

Clinical Guidance

Airborne & droplet.

  • Breathing in air or accidentally eating food contaminated with the urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents
  • Bite from an infected rodent
  • Less commonly, being around someone sick with hantavirus (only occurs with Andes virus)
  • Avoid rodents and areas where they live
  • Avoid sick people

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Breathe in TB bacteria that is in the air from an infected and contagious person coughing, speaking, or singing.

Learn actions you can take to stay healthy and safe on your trip. Vaccines cannot protect you from many diseases in the United Kingdom, so your behaviors are important.

Eat and drink safely

Food and water standards around the world vary based on the destination. Standards may also differ within a country and risk may change depending on activity type (e.g., hiking versus business trip). You can learn more about safe food and drink choices when traveling by accessing the resources below.

  • Choose Safe Food and Drinks When Traveling
  • Water Treatment Options When Hiking, Camping or Traveling
  • Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene | Healthy Water
  • Avoid Contaminated Water During Travel

You can also visit the  Department of State Country Information Pages  for additional information about food and water safety.

Prevent bug bites

Although the United Kingdom is an industrialized country, bug bites here can still spread diseases. Just as you would in the United States, try to avoid bug bites while spending time outside or in wooded areas.

What can I do to prevent bug bites?

  • Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats.
  • Use an appropriate insect repellent (see below).
  • Consider using permethrin-treated clothing and gear if spending a lot of time outside. Do not use permethrin directly on skin.

What type of insect repellent should I use?

  • FOR PROTECTION AGAINST TICKS AND MOSQUITOES: Use a repellent that contains 20% or more DEET for protection that lasts up to several hours.
  • Picaridin (also known as KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and icaridin)
  • Oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD)
  • 2-undecanone
  • Always use insect repellent as directed.

What should I do if I am bitten by bugs?

  • Avoid scratching bug bites, and apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce the itching.
  • Check your entire body for ticks after outdoor activity. Be sure to remove ticks properly.

What can I do to avoid bed bugs?

Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance. See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them. For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs .

For more detailed information on avoiding bug bites, see Avoid Bug Bites .

Stay safe outdoors

If your travel plans in the United Kingdom include outdoor activities, take these steps to stay safe and healthy during your trip:

  • Stay alert to changing weather conditions and adjust your plans if conditions become unsafe.
  • Prepare for activities by wearing the right clothes and packing protective items, such as bug spray, sunscreen, and a basic first aid kit.
  • Consider learning basic first aid and CPR before travel. Bring a travel health kit with items appropriate for your activities.
  • If you are outside for many hours in the heat, eat salty snacks and drink water to stay hydrated and replace salt lost through sweating.
  • Protect yourself from UV radiation : use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15, wear protective clothing, and seek shade during the hottest time of day (10 a.m.–4 p.m.).
  • Be especially careful during summer months and at high elevation. Because sunlight reflects off snow, sand, and water, sun exposure may be increased during activities like skiing, swimming, and sailing.
  • Very cold temperatures can be dangerous. Dress in layers and cover heads, hands, and feet properly if you are visiting a cold location.

Stay safe around water

  • Swim only in designated swimming areas. Obey lifeguards and warning flags on beaches.
  • Do not dive into shallow water.
  • Avoid swallowing water when swimming. Untreated water can carry germs that make you sick.
  • Practice safe boating—follow all boating safety laws, do not drink alcohol if you are driving a boat, and always wear a life jacket.

Keep away from animals

Most animals avoid people, but they may attack if they feel threatened, are protecting their young or territory, or if they are injured or ill. Animal bites and scratches can lead to serious diseases such as rabies.

Follow these tips to protect yourself:

  • Do not touch or feed any animals you do not know.
  • Do not allow animals to lick open wounds, and do not get animal saliva in your eyes or mouth.
  • Avoid rodents and their urine and feces.
  • Traveling pets should be supervised closely and not allowed to come in contact with local animals.
  • If you wake in a room with a bat, seek medical care immediately.  Bat bites may be hard to see.

All animals can pose a threat, but be extra careful around dogs, bats, monkeys, sea animals such as jellyfish, and snakes. If you are bitten or scratched by an animal, immediately:

  • Wash the wound with soap and clean water.
  • Go to a doctor right away.
  • Tell your doctor about your injury when you get back to the United States.

Reduce your exposure to germs

Follow these tips to avoid getting sick or spreading illness to others while traveling:

  • Wash your hands often, especially before eating.
  • If soap and water aren’t available, clean hands with hand sanitizer (containing at least 60% alcohol).
  • Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
  • Try to avoid contact with people who are sick.
  • If you are sick, stay home or in your hotel room, unless you need medical care.

Avoid sharing body fluids

Diseases can be spread through body fluids, such as saliva, blood, vomit, and semen.

Protect yourself:

  • Use latex condoms correctly.
  • Do not inject drugs.
  • Limit alcohol consumption. People take more risks when intoxicated.
  • Do not share needles or any devices that can break the skin. That includes needles for tattoos, piercings, and acupuncture.
  • If you receive medical or dental care, make sure the equipment is disinfected or sanitized.

Know how to get medical care while traveling

Plan for how you will get health care during your trip, should the need arise:

  • Carry a list of local doctors and hospitals at your destination.
  • Review your health insurance plan to determine what medical services it would cover during your trip. Consider purchasing travel health and medical evacuation insurance for things your regular insurance will not cover.
  • Carry a card that identifies, in the local language, your blood type, chronic conditions or serious allergies, and the generic names of any medicines you take.
  • Bring copies of your prescriptions for medicine and for eye glasses and contact lenses.
  • Some prescription drugs may be illegal in other countries. Call the United Kingdom’s embassy to verify that all of your prescription(s) are legal to bring with you.
  • Bring all the medicines (including over-the-counter medicines) you think you might need during your trip, including extra in case of travel delays. Ask your doctor to help you get prescriptions filled early if you need to.

Many foreign hospitals and clinics are accredited by the Joint Commission International. A list of accredited facilities is available at their website ( www.jointcommissioninternational.org ).

Select safe transportation

Motor vehicle crashes are the #1 killer of healthy US citizens in foreign countries.

Be smart when you are traveling on foot.

  • Use sidewalks and marked crosswalks.
  • Pay attention to the traffic around you, especially in crowded areas.
  • Remember, people on foot do not always have the right of way in other countries.

Riding/Driving

Choose a safe vehicle.

  • Choose official taxis or public transportation, such as trains and buses.
  • Make sure there are seatbelts.
  • Avoid overcrowded, overloaded, top-heavy buses and minivans.
  • Avoid riding on motorcycles or motorbikes, especially motorbike taxis. (Many crashes are caused by inexperienced motorbike drivers.)
  • Choose newer vehicles—they may have more safety features, such as airbags, and be more reliable.
  • Choose larger vehicles, which may provide more protection in crashes.

Think about the driver.

  • Do not drive after drinking alcohol or ride with someone who has been drinking.
  • Consider hiring a licensed, trained driver familiar with the area.
  • Arrange payment before departing.

Follow basic safety tips.

  • Wear a seatbelt at all times.
  • Sit in the back seat of cars and taxis.
  • When on motorbikes or bicycles, always wear a helmet. (Bring a helmet from home, if needed.)
  • Do not use a cell phone or text while driving (illegal in many countries).
  • Travel during daylight hours only, especially in rural areas.
  • If you choose to drive a vehicle in the United Kingdom, learn the local traffic laws and have the proper paperwork.
  • Get any driving permits and insurance you may need. Get an International Driving Permit (IDP). Carry the IDP and a US-issued driver's license at all times.
  • Check with your auto insurance policy's international coverage, and get more coverage if needed. Make sure you have liability insurance.
  • Avoid using local, unscheduled aircraft.
  • If possible, fly on larger planes (more than 30 seats); larger airplanes are more likely to have regular safety inspections.
  • Try to schedule flights during daylight hours and in good weather.

Helpful Resources

Road Safety Overseas (Information from the US Department of State): Includes tips on driving in other countries, International Driving Permits, auto insurance, and other resources.

The Association for International Road Travel has country-specific Road Travel Reports available for most countries for a minimal fee.

Traffic flows on the left side of the road in the United Kingdom.

  • Always pay close attention to the flow of traffic, especially when crossing the street.
  • LOOK RIGHT for approaching traffic.

Maintain personal security

Use the same common sense traveling overseas that you would at home, and always stay alert and aware of your surroundings.

Before you leave

  • Research your destination(s), including local laws, customs, and culture.
  • Monitor travel advisories and alerts and read travel tips from the US Department of State.
  • Enroll in the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) .
  • Leave a copy of your itinerary, contact information, credit cards, and passport with someone at home.
  • Pack as light as possible, and leave at home any item you could not replace.

While at your destination(s)

  • Carry contact information for the nearest US embassy or consulate .
  • Carry a photocopy of your passport and entry stamp; leave the actual passport securely in your hotel.
  • Follow all local laws and social customs.
  • Do not wear expensive clothing or jewelry.
  • Always keep hotel doors locked, and store valuables in secure areas.
  • If possible, choose hotel rooms between the 2nd and 6th floors.

Healthy Travel Packing List

Use the Healthy Travel Packing List for United Kingdom for a list of health-related items to consider packing for your trip. Talk to your doctor about which items are most important for you.

Why does CDC recommend packing these health-related items?

It’s best to be prepared to prevent and treat common illnesses and injuries. Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.

If you are not feeling well after your trip, you may need to see a doctor. If you need help finding a travel medicine specialist, see Find a Clinic . Be sure to tell your doctor about your travel, including where you went and what you did on your trip. Also tell your doctor if you were bitten or scratched by an animal while traveling.

For more information on what to do if you are sick after your trip, see Getting Sick after Travel .

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Travel Vaccinations

If you’re planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world.

Vaccinations are available to protect you against infections such as  yellow fever ,  typhoid   and  hepatitis A  .

In the UK, the  NHS routine immunisation (vaccination) schedule   protects you against a number of diseases, but does not cover all of the infectious diseases found overseas.

When should I start thinking about the vaccines I need?

If possible, see the GP or private travel clinics at least 8 weeks before you’re due to travel.

Some vaccines need to be given well in advance to allow your body to develop immunity.

And some vaccines involve a number of doses spread over several weeks or months.

You may be more at risk of some diseases, for example, if you’re:

  • travelling in rural areas
  • backpacking
  • staying in hostels or camping
  • on a long trip rather than a package holiday

If you have a pre-existing health problem, this may make you more at risk of infection or complications from a travel-related illness.

Which travel vaccines do I need?

You can find out which vaccinations are necessary or recommended for the areas you’ll be visiting on these websites:

  • Travel Health Pro 
  • NHS Fit for Travel 

Some countries require proof of vaccination (for example, for polio or yellow fever vaccination), which must be documented on an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) before you enter or when you leave a country.

Saudi Arabia requires proof of vaccination against certain types of  meningitis  for visitors arriving for the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.

Even if an ICVP is not required, it’s still a good idea to take a record of the vaccinations you have had with you.

Find out more about the vaccines available for travellers abroad 

Where do I get my travel vaccines?

First, phone or visit the GP practice or practice nurse to find out whether your existing UK vaccinations are up-to-date.

If you have any records of your vaccinations, let the GP know what you have had previously.

You should also ask if the GP practice is signed up to provide free NHS vaccinations for travel, as not all GP practices are.

If the GP practice does not provide NHS vaccinations for travel, you can try a:

  • private travel vaccination clinic
  • pharmacy offering travel healthcare services

The GP or practice nurse may be able to give you general advice about travel vaccinations and travel health, such as protecting yourself from malaria.

They can give you any missing doses of your UK vaccines if you need them.

Not all travel vaccinations are available free on the NHS, even if they’re recommended for travel to a certain area.

If the GP practice is signed up to provide NHS travel vaccines, these can be provided to you free of charge.

Other non-NHS travel vaccines may be charged for by the GP.

If the GP practice can give you the travel vaccines you need but they are not available on the NHS, ask for:

  • written information on what vaccines are needed
  • the cost of each dose or course
  • any other charges you may have to pay, such as for some certificates of vaccination

Which travel vaccines are free?

The following travel vaccines are available free on the NHS if your GP practice is signed up to provide vaccination (immunisation) services.

  • polio (given as a  combined diphtheria/tetanus/polio jab  )
  • typhoid 
  • hepatitis A 
  • cholera 

These vaccines are free because they protect against diseases thought to represent the greatest risk to public health if they were brought into the country.

Which travel vaccines will I have to pay for?

You’ll have to pay for travel vaccinations against:

  • hepatitis B 
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • meningitis vaccines 
  • rabies 
  • tick-borne encephalitis
  • tuberculosis (TB) 
  • yellow fever 

Yellow fever vaccines are only available from designated centres in your locality.

The cost of travel vaccines that are not available on the NHS will vary, depending on the vaccine and number of doses you need.

It’s worth considering this when budgeting for your trip.

Other things to consider

There are other things to consider when planning your travel vaccinations, including:

  • your age and health – you may be more vulnerable to infection than others; some vaccines cannot be given to people with certain medical conditions
  • working as an aid worker – you may come into contact with more diseases in a refugee camp or helping after a natural disaster
  • working in a medical setting – a doctor, nurse or another healthcare worker may require additional vaccinations
  • contact with animals – you may be more at risk of getting diseases spread by animals, such as rabies

If you’re only travelling to countries in northern and central Europe, North America or Australia, you’re unlikely to need any vaccinations.

But it’s important to check that you’re up-to-date with routine vaccinations available on the NHS.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Speak to a GP before having any vaccinations if:

  • you’re pregnant
  • you think you might be pregnant
  • you’re breastfeeding

In many cases, it’s unlikely a vaccine given while you’re pregnant or breastfeeding will cause problems for the baby.

But the GP will be able to give you further advice about this.

People with immune deficiencies

For some people travelling overseas, vaccination against certain diseases may not be advised.

This may be the case if:

  • you have a condition that affects your body’s immune system, such as  HIV or AIDS
  • you’re receiving treatment that affects your immune system, such as  chemotherapy
  • you have recently had a bone marrow or organ transplant

A GP can give you further advice about this.

Non-travel vaccines

As well as getting any travel vaccinations you need, it’s also a good opportunity to make sure your other UK vaccinations are up-to-date and have booster vaccines if necessary.

People in certain risk groups may be offered extra vaccines.

These include vaccinations against diseases such as:

  • chickenpox 

Read more information on  NHS vaccines  for adults and children to find out whether you should have any.

Travel Risk Assessment Form

Most vaccines are given at least 2 weeks before travel, and some more complicated regimes take longer. Please try to give us prior notice (preferably 6 weeks).

travel vaccination uk

Affinity Care logo

Travel Vaccinations

If you’re planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world.

In the UK, the  NHS routine immunisation (vaccination) schedule  protects you against a number of diseases, but does not cover all of the infectious diseases found overseas.

If you require any non-NHS travel vaccines, these will need to be provided by other travel clinics.

We can provide these NHS vaccines

  • Hepatitis A
  • Diphtheria / Tetanus / Polio
  • Malaria tablets (on a private prescriptions)

We do not provide these Non-NHS vaccines

  • Hepatitis B
  • Yellow Fever
  • Meningitis ACWY
  • Japanese Encephalitis

Affinity Care can provide NHS vaccines for patients who complete the travel assessment below.

Ideally, you should submit this form 6 weeks prior to travelling as some vaccines can take up to 4 weeks to provide effective protection. If you are travelling in less than 4 weeks, we may not be able to offer you an appointment prior to your departure date.

For each country that you are visiting, please consult the following website:   www.travelhealthpro.org.uk

This will give you advice on which vaccinations you may require for your travel under the ‘country information’ tab.  If you think you require any vaccinations for your trip, please submit the form at the bottom of this page.  A separate form will need to be completed for each traveller.

Once you have submitted the form, one of our nurses will give you a call to discuss this in more detail and book an appointment if necessary.  This will be within 5 working days of receiving the form.

Even if you do not require any vaccines there are many other elements you should consider for safe travel.  Please visit the link below which covers everything from Accident prevention to Water purification!

Advice – Fit for Travel

Travel Vaccination Assessment Form

Please tell us which practice you are registered with —Please choose an option— Haigh Hall Medical Practice Shipley Medical Practice Sunnybank and Cowgill Practice The Willows, Thornton and Denholmne Medical Practice

Date of Birth

Email address

Phone Number

Date of Travel

Date of return

Reason for travel ( Visiting family, holiday, business)

Length of stay

Accomodation ( Hotel, Hostel etc.)

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Immunizations - travel

Last revised in July 2023

Many diseases are endemic in many regions of the world. All travellers should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations

  • Scenario: Initial assessment and advice
  • Scenario: Cholera
  • Scenario: Hepatitis A
  • Scenario: Hepatitis B
  • Scenario: Japanese encephalitis
  • Scenario: Meningococcal meningitis
  • Scenario: Poliomyelitis
  • Scenario: Rabies
  • Scenario: Tetanus
  • Scenario: Tick-borne encephalitis
  • Scenario: Typhoid fever
  • Scenario: Yellow fever
  • Scenario: Hajj and Umrah pilgrims
  • Scenario: Rapid vaccination courses and vaccination at short notice

Background information

  • Travel vaccinations
  • Diseases commonly requiring vaccination
  • Other diseases requiring vaccination
  • Where these diseases are prevalent
  • Payment for travel vaccinations

Immunizations - travel: Summary

  • Hepatitis A.
  • Meningococcal meningitis.
  • Poliomyelitis.
  • Typhoid fever.
  • Yellow fever.
  • Hepatitis B.
  • Japanese encephalitis.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis.
  • Travellers' diarrhoea.
  • Sexually transmitted infections.
  • Parasitic infestation.
  • The region visited — the risk may vary from country to country, and prevalence may vary within countries.
  • The length of stay — the longer the stay, the greater the risk of exposure.
  • The time of travel — some diseases are more prevalent at certain times of the year (for example, the rainy season).
  • The type of holiday or work — in general, people are more at risk in rural areas than in urbanized developed areas. Hence backpacking may be more dangerous than a package holiday, and work in rural or wild areas is often particularly high risk.
  • The age and health of the traveller — some people may be more susceptible to infections.
  • All travellers should be up to date with routinely recommended vaccinations according to the UK schedule.
  • A country-by-country guide to disease prevalence and details of additional vaccinations required for specific areas of travel can be obtained from the National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) TravelHealthPro website at  www.travelhealthpro.org.uk .

The content on the NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries site (CKS) is the copyright of Clarity Informatics Limited (trading as Agilio Software Primary Care) . By using CKS, you agree to the licence set out in the CKS End User Licence Agreement .

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Ultimate guide to travel vaccinations

Article contents.

Profile picture for user richard.geraci@admiralgroup.co.uk

Stacey Mitchell

20 October 2023 | Updated 18 April 2024 | 8 minute read

If you’re travelling abroad, you should know which vaccines you need for your destination. We’ve broken down everything you need to know about getting the right travel vaccinations, depending on where you’re going. 

What is a vaccine?

A vaccine is a substance which makes the body produce antibodies against a certain illness or disease.

It can be made from a small dose of the disease or a synthetic version. It’s designed to make your body have an immune response without causing symptoms. 

Why do I need travel vaccinations?

In the UK, you need routine vaccinations , like measles or mumps, but they don’t protect you from overseas diseases.

If you’re travelling abroad, it’s important to check what vaccinations you may need for the country you’re going to.

You might be more at risk of developing illnesses abroad if you:

  • are travelling in rural areas
  • are backpacking
  • are camping or staying in hostels 
  • have a pre-existing health condition

When should I get my travel vaccinations?

If you need to book vaccines for travel, you should make an appointment with your doctor or travel clinic at least eight weeks before you travel.

Some vaccinations need multiple doses, and your body needs time to develop immunity.

Before having any vaccines for your holiday, make sure your GP is aware if you:

  • are pregnant or think you might be pregnant
  • are breastfeeding
  • have an immune deficiency
  • have any allergies

Where do I get travel vaccinations?

Before booking an appointment, call or visit your doctor’s surgery to check if you’re up to date with your routine vaccinations.

If you have records of previous vaccinations for travelling abroad, let your doctor know.

The next step is to find out if your GP is signed up to offer free NHS travel vaccinations : some vaccines aren’t free and available on the NHS.

If they are, make an appointment. If they aren’t, you could try a private clinic or a pharmacy offering travel healthcare services.

How much are travel vaccinations?

The cost of travel vaccines depends on which country you’re travelling to and the diseases you need vaccinating against. 

Some are freely available on the NHS, but you will have to pay for others.

If your vaccinations aren’t available on the NHS, ask your doctor for the following details:

  • written information on the necessary vaccines
  • how much the dose or course costs
  • any other charges, such as for a certificate of vaccination

Free travel vaccinations available on the NHS include:

  • polio (given as a combined diphtheria/tetanus/polio jab)
  • hepatitis A

These diseases are vaccinated against for free as they’re the riskiest to public health if they’re brought into the country. Vaccinations you’ll need to pay for include:

  • hepatitis B

Japanese encephalitis

  • tick-borne encephalitis
  • tuberculosis (TB)
  • yellow fever – only available from specific Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres (YFVCs)

Will my travel insurance cover me if I become ill and haven’t had the relevant vaccine?

If the vaccination would have prevented an illness you get abroad, you won’t be covered by travel insurance . 

It’s important to follow the advice of the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) and your doctor.

This includes getting all recommended vaccinations and inoculations and taking enough of your prescription medication with you to cover the time you’re away.

What vaccinations do I need?

The vaccinations you’ll need depends how when you’re going and the type of areas you may visit in that country.

For a full list of countries and the vaccinations you need for each, check out:

  • NHS Fit for Travel
  • Travel Health Pro

Travel vaccinations by country

We’ve listed some of the countries you’ll need specific vaccinations for below. 

You can check what vaccinations you need for a country by checking NHS Fit for Travel but if you’re unsure, speak to a medical professional.

Vaccines usually recommended:

Other vaccines to consider:

For individuals at highest risk:

Yellow fever vaccination certificate requirements in India are very specific, and you can read more on the World Health Organisation (WHO) website .

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers nine months old or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission , or anyone who came via a country with a risk of yellow fever transmission.

  • poliomyelitis

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers nine months old or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission .

South Africa

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers one year or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission , or anyone who spent more than 12 hours in a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers nine months old or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission , or anyone who spent more than 12 hours in a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers over nine months old arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission , or anyone who came via a country with risk of yellow fever transmission. 

This doesn’t apply if you’re only travelling to Hong Kong and Macao.

Travel vaccinations by disease

Most travellers don’t need a cholera vaccine. Aid workers or people who’ll have limited access to medical treatment will sometimes need it.

Cholera is generally an issue in areas which may have poor sanitation, such as:

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • South and southeast Asia
  • the Middle East
  • Central America and the Caribbean

The vaccine is usually taken as a drink in two doses one to six weeks apart. Take the final dose at least a week before you travel.

The diphtheria vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus and polio. It’s sometimes known as the dtap vaccine or tdap vaccine.

It’s routinely given to children in the UK. You may need a booster if it’s been more than 10 years and if you’re travelling somewhere diphtheria is widespread such as:

  • former Soviet Union

Any boosters are usually a single three-in-one injection.

Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended when travelling to certain countries that may have areas with poor hygiene and sanitation, such as:

  • South and Central America

A single hepatitis A injection is given initially, with a second booster six to 12 months later. This should cover you for 20 years.

You can also get a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine if required.

Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B vaccine is usually offered to people travelling to places such as:

  • southern and eastern Europe

Hepatitis B spreads through blood and bodily fluids, so having sex and playing contact sports can increase your risk of getting it.

The hepatitis B immunisation involves a course of three injections which can be spread over any period from three weeks to six months.

The Japanese encephalitis vaccine is recommended for anyone planning to stay for at least a month in Asia.

It’s also recommended for the Pacific islands and northern Australia. It’s rare in Japan now due to immunisation programmes.

The Japanese encephalitis vaccination has two injections 28 days apart.

Meningococcal meningitis

The meningococcal meningitis (MenACWY) vaccine is usually recommended for people travelling to parts of Africa or Saudi Arabia, particularly during Hajj or Umrah. 

You need it if you’re travelling for a long time and have close contact with the local people.

It’s a single injection given two to three weeks before you travel.

The polio vaccine is routinely given to children in the UK as part of the diphtheria, polio and tetanus vaccination.

However, if you’re travelling to places such as Pakistan, Afghanistan or Nigeria, and your last injection was more than 10 years ago, you may need a booster.

Rabies is found all over the world – look at the list of countries for more information. The rabies vaccine is recommended if you’re travelling to an at-risk area, particularly if you’re:

  • staying for at least a month
  • unable to get quick access to medical facilities
  • doing activities that increase your risk of rabies (for example cycling and running)

The rabies vaccination involves three injections over a period of 28 days.

The tetanus vaccine is available as part of a combined vaccination for diphtheria, tetanus and polio, which is routinely given to children in the UK.

A booster is usually only recommended if you’re travelling somewhere with limited medical services, or it’s been 10 years since your last dose.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

The tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is usually recommended for people living or working in high-risk areas, or planning to hike or camp in these areas during spring or summer.

High-risk areas include:

  • central, eastern, and northern Europe
  • eastern Russia
  • certain countries in east Asia such as China and Japan

The vaccination is made up of three injections. The first injection is given, followed by a second dose one to three months later and a third dose five to 12 months after that.

The full course TBE vaccine offers protection for up to three years, after which you’ll need a booster if required.

Tuberculosis (TB)

The tuberculosis or TB vaccine is given to those thought to be at increased risk of the disease.

It’s recommended for those under 16 who’ll be living or working in a country where TB is common:

  • parts of South and Southeast Asia
  • parts of South and Central America
  • parts of the Middle East

The TB vaccine is given as a single injection often known as a BCG.

The typhoid vaccine is advised if you’re travelling to areas like:

  • parts of south and southeast Asia

It’s important if you’re going to be staying or working with local people in areas where sanitation and food hygiene are poor.

Two vaccines are available: a single typhoid injection and a course of three capsules, both of which should ideally be taken a month before you travel.

You’ll then need a booster every three years if you’re still at risk.

Yellow Fever

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended if you’re travelling to high-risk areas such as:

  • tropical Africa
  • central and South America

A single dose of the yellow fever injection taken at least 10 days before travelling is thought to offer lifelong protection – a booster is no longer necessary for most people.

You’ll be given an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis when you have your yellow fever jab. 

This is required for entry to certain countries, so make sure you keep this safe as it’s valid for life. You’ll need a certificate to enter: 

  • United Republic of Tanzania

Without a certificate, you’ll be kept in quarantine for up to six days after arriving from the at-risk country.  

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travel vaccination uk

Your Health To-Do List When Traveling to the UK

Last Updated on January 6, 2024

Health and fitness holidays in the UK have gained immense popularity in 2023. With The Guardian’s  extensive catalog  of wellness travel featuring everything from invigorating running breaks in Scotland to serene mindful walking weekends in Wales, the spotlight on traveling for your well-being has never been stronger. However, as tourists increasingly seek vacations that align with their health goals, prioritizing well-being beyond simple wellness retreats is equally important.

A proactive approach to health ensures you can enjoy the mainland and different islands of the UK without worrying about getting sick along the way. To maximize your health outcomes, preparation must begin long before the first boarding call. Below, we take a closer look at four health to-dos before traveling to the UK in 2024.

Update your vaccines

Traveling increases your chances of spreading diseases that are rare in your home country. Hence,  updating your vaccines  is not only a preventive measure for your well-being but also a responsible action to protect the communities you visit.

For example, there are routine vaccines that are recommended for anyone going to the UK, such as chickenpox, shingles, or the flu. You can always have additional vaccines for certain conditions if you think you’re more likely to be exposed to them. For instance, hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for travelers who plan to visit smaller villages and rural areas. Otherwise, it’s crucial to check for any travel health notice regarding current health issues in your destination. As of September 2023, the UK was placed under Level 2 Practice Enhanced Precautions for poliovirus, so it would be wise to be up to date on your polio vaccines.

Check your eye health

Vision health can significantly impact your adventures. Yet, the process of safeguarding your eye health can vary across different locations. For one, eyeglass wearers who lost their glasses may struggle to find a new pair in rural areas, leading to blurry and uncomfortable vision for the rest of the trip. In that case, it’s best to have spare eyeglasses on hand.

However, there are various accessible options for vision care. If you need to immediately replace your eyewear, then you can find affordable options for different types of  glasses  at eyewear retailer Glasses Direct, with deals such as 2-for-1 designer frames from £69 (approximately $88). This can be ordered online and delivered directly to your accommodations. If you need a new prescription, then you can easily book an eye test at the multiple branches of Asda Opticians or Vision Express. You might also qualify for a free eye test from the NHS in Scotland as an overseas visitor, so try to register with a general medical practice as soon as you arrive at your destination.

Check your oral health

Maintaining good oral health is vital on international journeys, especially longer trips. Similar to eye health maintenance, however, this process can be a little difficult in a new location. This can be particularly challenging in the UK, which has had a  shortage of dentists  since 2021, with dental tourism at record highs. In fact, UK-based consultancy Medical Travel Market received over 1,500 inquiries in 2023, up more than 450% from 2022.

Thus, consulting with a dentist before any extended trip is crucial, especially for those with ongoing treatments, such as braces or retainers. Your dentist may need to adjust your braces to a safer setting before your travels or equip you with an extra retainer. These will help you avoid the inconvenience of seeking orthodontic treatment during your travels. If it comes down to it, then you may have to find a private clinic in the UK or line up for NHS dental services if eligible.

Secure travel insurance

As you embark on the journey of a lifetime, it’s crucial to have a safety net in place. Factors such as trip duration or destinations should be taken into account when securing  travel insurance . For instance, annual contracts normally cover up to 30 days maximum, whereas backpacking insurance can range from three months to a year. A helpful tip: most travel insurance comes with a deductible that you must pay beforehand. Clarify this policy when making any purchase.

That being said, take your time to compare several insurance companies, then, upon your selection, inform your provider about your travel plans. Understanding your coverage for medical emergencies, trip cancellations, and unexpected events will provide peace of mind throughout your journey.

By prepping in advance, you lay the foundation for a journey to the UK filled with memorable moments and peace of mind. Remember, taking care of your health is not only a personal responsibility but also a commitment to fostering a healthier global travel community.

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  • Get to Know a Different Side of Bhutan For Every Season

Health and fitness holidays in the UK have gained immense popularity in 2023. With The Guardian’s extensive catalog of wellness travel featuring everything from invigorating running breaks in Scotland to serene mindful walking weekends in Wales, the spotlight on traveling for your well-being has never been stronger. However, as tourists increasingly seek vacations that align with their health goals, prioritizing well-being beyond simple wellness retreats is equally important. A proactive approach to health ensures you can enjoy the mainland and different islands of the UK without worrying about getting sick along the way. To maximize your health outcomes, preparation must begin long …

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Travel vaccinations now available at UK Pharmacist Care Clinic

A pharmacist prepares medicine at UK Retail Pharmacy.

UK Retail Pharmacies now offers a new service to make preparing for international travel easier. The service provides travelers with all the required and recommended vaccines they need based on their destination.

Travelers can prepare for their next trip abroad by receiving counseling based on their travel itinerary, as well as travel vaccinations, including:

  • Yellow fever
  • Japanese encephalitis 
  • Typhoid 

Over-the-counter (OTC) travel health items and prescription-based travel health medications are also available.  

Travel health services are available at the UK Pharmacist Care Clinic (245 Fountain Court, Room 220, off Man O’ War Boulevard). The service is open to everyone age 6 months and older. Vaccinations are by appointment only Monday-Friday 9 a.m. – 3:30 p.m. (closed for lunch 1 – 1:30 p.m.). Pediatric patients must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. 

Travelers should keep their travel date in mind when scheduling an appointment. It is best to get vaccinated 4-6 weeks before traveling to let vaccines take effect. 

Your first travel health appointment will be a TeleCare video appointment. Prior to your appointment, you will be asked to complete a travel health questionnaire. During your video visit, a member of the Pharmacist Care team will review your answers and provide counseling based on your travel itinerary and health information. The cost of the appointment is $75 and does not include costs for any OTC travel health items or medications that may be prescribed. You will need to schedule an additional in-person appointment if vaccinations are needed.

To schedule an appointment, visit https://mychart.uky.edu/MyChart/openscheduling , select “Pharmacy,” then “Travel Health” and fill out the information. You can also scan the QR code with your smartphone camera. If you need help with scheduling an appointment, please call 859-562-2018 .

UK Retail Pharmacies’ Pharmacist Care Clinic provides a wide range of point-of-care services, including: 

  • Vaccinations for COVID-19, flu, RSV, hepatitis A&B, shingles, pneumococcal pneumonia, tetanus and more.
  • One-stop testing and treatment for flu, strep A and more.
  • Allergic rhinitis (nasal allergies) testing and consultation to help you manage your symptoms.
  • Tobacco cessation support. 

For questions about the Pharmacist Care Clinic, visit https://ukhealthcare.uky.edu/PharmacistCare or call 859-562-2018 .

UK Retail Pharmacies are full-service pharmacies, with seven locations in Lexington open to everyone and one, The Bluegrass Clinic Pharmacy in Beaumont, open to UK employees and patients of the UK Bluegrass Care Clinic. All of our locations accept most insurance plans. Visit ukpharmacy.org for more information or call toll-free 833-333-UKRx (8579) .

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Travel Vaccinations

If you’re planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world.

Vaccinations are available to protect you against infections such as  yellow fever ,  typhoid  and  hepatitis A .

In the UK, the  NHS routine immunisation (vaccination) schedule  protects you against a number of diseases, but does not cover all of the infectious diseases found overseas.

If possible, see the GP or a private travel clinic at least 8 weeks before you’re due to travel.

Some vaccines need to be given well in advance to allow your body to develop immunity.

And some vaccines involve a number of doses spread over several weeks or months.

You may be more at risk of some diseases, for example, if you’re:

  • travelling in rural areas
  • backpacking
  • staying in hostels or camping
  • on a long trip rather than a package holiday

If you have a pre-existing health problem, this may make you more at risk of infection or complications from a travel-related illness.

You can find out which vaccinations are necessary or recommended for the areas you’ll be visiting on these websites:

  • Travel Health Pro
  • NHS Fit for Travel

Some countries require proof of vaccination (for example, for polio or yellow fever vaccination), which must be documented on an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) before you enter or when you leave a country.

Saudi Arabia requires proof of vaccination against certain types of  meningitis  for visitors arriving for the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages.

Even if an ICVP is not required, it’s still a good idea to take a record of the vaccinations you have had with you.

Find out more about the vaccines available for travellers abroad

First, phone or visit the GP practice or practice nurse to find out whether your existing UK vaccinations are up-to-date.

If you have any records of your vaccinations, let the GP know what you have had previously.

You should also ask if the GP practice is signed up to provide free NHS vaccinations for travel, as not all GP practices are.

If the GP practice does not provide NHS vaccinations for travel, you can try a:

  • private travel vaccination clinic
  • pharmacy offering travel healthcare services

The GP or practice nurse may be able to give you general advice about travel vaccinations and travel health, such as protecting yourself from malaria.

They can give you any missing doses of your UK vaccines if you need them.

Not all travel vaccinations are available free on the NHS, even if they’re recommended for travel to a certain area.

If the GP practice is signed up to provide NHS travel vaccines, these can be provided to you free of charge.

Other non-NHS travel vaccines may be charged for by the GP.

If the GP practice can give you the travel vaccines you need but they are not available on the NHS, ask for:

  • written information on what vaccines are needed
  • the cost of each dose or course
  • any other charges you may have to pay, such as for some certificates of vaccination

The following travel vaccines are available free on the NHS if your GP practice is signed up to provide vaccination (immunisation) services.

  • polio (given as a  combined diphtheria/tetanus/polio jab )
  • hepatitis A

These vaccines are free because they protect against diseases thought to represent the greatest risk to public health if they were brought into the country.

You’ll have to pay for travel vaccinations against:

  • hepatitis B
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • meningitis vaccines
  • tick-borne encephalitis
  • tuberculosis (TB)
  • yellow fever

Yellow fever vaccines are only available from  designated centres .

The cost of travel vaccines that are not available on the NHS will vary, depending on the vaccine and number of doses you need.

It’s worth considering this when budgeting for your trip.

There are other things to consider when planning your travel vaccinations, including:

  • your age and health – you may be more vulnerable to infection than others; some vaccines cannot be given to people with certain medical conditions
  • working as an aid worker – you may come into contact with more diseases in a refugee camp or helping after a natural disaster
  • working in a medical setting – a doctor, nurse or another healthcare worker may require additional vaccinations
  • contact with animals – you may be more at risk of getting diseases spread by animals, such as rabies

If you’re only travelling to countries in northern and central Europe, North America or Australia, you’re unlikely to need any vaccinations.

But it’s important to check that you’re up-to-date with routine vaccinations available on the NHS.

Speak to a GP before having any vaccinations if:

  • you’re pregnant
  • you think you might be pregnant
  • you’re breastfeeding

In many cases, it’s unlikely a vaccine given while you’re pregnant or breastfeeding will cause problems for the baby.

But the GP will be able to give you further advice about this.

For some people travelling overseas, vaccination against certain diseases may not be advised.

This may be the case if:

  • you have a condition that affects your body’s immune system, such as  HIV or AIDS
  • you’re receiving treatment that affects your immune system, such as  chemotherapy
  • you have recently had a bone marrow or organ transplant

A GP can give you further advice about this.

As well as getting any travel vaccinations you need, it’s also a good opportunity to make sure your other UK vaccinations are up-to-date and have booster vaccines if necessary.

People in certain risk groups may be offered extra vaccines.

These include vaccinations against diseases such as:

Read more information on  NHS vaccines  for adults and children to find out whether you should have any.

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travel vaccination uk

Foreign travel advice

Get advice about travelling abroad, including the latest information on coronavirus, safety and security, entry requirements and travel warnings.

Countries or territories

226 Countries or territories

Countries starting with A

  • Afghanistan
  • Antarctica/British Antarctic Territory
  • Antigua and Barbuda

Countries starting with B

  • Bonaire/St Eustatius/Saba
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Burkina Faso

Countries starting with C

  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Cook Islands, Tokelau and Niue
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Czech Republic

Countries starting with D

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Dominican Republic

Countries starting with E

  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea

Countries starting with F

  • Falkland Islands
  • Federated States of Micronesia
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia

Countries starting with G

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Ukraine war latest: Modi issues rebuke to Putin during state visit; 'highly unstable scenario' with Western powers and Ukrainian military funding

In the wake of Moscow's deadliest airstrikes in Ukraine for months, Indian PM Narendra Modi issues a veiled rebuke to Vladimir Putin during a state visit - all on the eve of a NATO summit in Washington.

Tuesday 9 July 2024 17:24, UK

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  • China and Belarus launch joint military drills near Polish border on eve of NATO summit
  • 'Highly unstable scenario' with West and Ukrainian military funding - but 'major Russia gains unlikely'
  • Day of mourning follows Russian attack on Kyiv children's hospital and four other cities, killing 41 and injuring 150
  • Modi issues rebuke to Putin over death of children during state visit
  • Russia used 'new and noteworthy' tactic in deadly wave of missile strikes
  • Ukraine attacks several Russian regions with dozens of drones
  • NATO leaders to be warned of North Korean threat to Europe
  • Deborah Haynes analysis: Russia sending a message to NATO
  • Your questions answered: Has the West been honest about Ukraine's failures? | Is Kyiv next?
  • Live reporting by Bhvishya Patel and (earlier)  Brad Young

Czech foreign minister Jan Lipavsky has said he has summoned Russia's ambassador in Prague following an attack on a children's hospital in Ukraine's capital, saying those who carried out the strike were the "dregs of humanity".

Ukrainian authorities say Russia struck the main children's hospital in Kyiv with a cruise missile and fired missiles at other cities yesterday, killing at least 41 civilians across the country.

Russia denied it had attacked a Kyiv children's hospital and said that Ukrainian anti-missile fire was to blame for Monday's strike.

"I have decided to summon the Russian ambassador," Mr Lipavsky wrote on X.

"Murderers who attack children in hospitals are the dregs of humanity. He has been instructed to deliver the message in Moscow."

A court in Moscow has ordered the arrest of Yulia Navalnaya, the widow of  Alexei Navalny, in absentia for two months.

The court accused Ms Navalnaya, who lives outside Russia, of participating in an "extremist" group. 

The decision means she would face certain arrest if she set foot in the country.

Ms Navalnaya met her husband in her early twenties on a holiday in Turkey in 1998. 

She stayed largely in the shadows of his political career until his poisoning in 2020.

She has since vowed to take on his fight and called on fellow Russians to "use every opportunity" to fight against Vladimir Putin's regime.

Russia has pledged to begin discharging Indian nationals who had been "misled" into joining its military.

India's foreign secretary Vinay Mohan Kwatra said Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who is on a two-day visit to Russia, had raised the issue in his talks with Vladimir Putin.

"The prime minister strongly raised the issue of early discharge of Indian nationals who have been misled into the service of the Russian army," Mr Kwatra said.

He also said the situation affected an estimated 35-50 Indians, of whom 10 had already been brought home. 

He said the two countries would now work to expedite the remaining cases.

New Delhi has been seeking the release of its nationals whose families say they were lured to Russia by the promise of "support jobs" in the army, and were later forced into active combat in Ukraine.

Volodymyr Zelenskyy will deliver an address this evening at the Ronald Reagan Institute in Washington, the institute has said.

Oksana Markarova, Ukraine's ambassador to the US, said in a statement: "President Reagan understood the Soviet Union and Russia. 

"He knew that free countries must stand together with confidence whenever tyranny is on the move."

NATO is not expected to invite Ukraine to become a member at this year's 9-11 July gathering. 

Many NATO countries want to state that Ukraine's path to membership is "irreversible" but alliance members are still wrangling over the summit declaration.

A little earlier, we reported on Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's implicit rebuke of Vladimir Putin, by referencing the "pain" of the death of children (see 12.17 post).

We now have some more detail on talks between the pair, with the Russian leader saying they had constructive discussions about Ukraine.

In comments reported by Russian state-owned agency RIA, Mr Modi said: "We also agreed to establish peace as soon as possible and we are ready for any assistance in this matter.

"I have heard your position, your positive views and ideas. I can assure you that India has always been on the side of peace. And when I listened to you, I felt optimistic and hopes for the future arose, so I want to thank you for that."

"The solution cannot be through war. Bombs, missiles and guns cannot ensure peace, so we are emphasising the importance of dialogue, and dialogue is necessary."

However, despite Mr Modi's veiled criticism of Mr Putin earlier today, relations between the two appear to remain close - with the Russian president later awarding Mr Modi with the Order of St Andrew, Russia's highest state honour.

Yesterday we reported how a Russian strike on Ukraine's largest children's hospital, Okhmatdyt, Kyiv, killed two people.

A further 32 people were wounded, among them eight children requiring hospital treatment, said Ihor Klymenko, minister of internal affairs.

One of those killed has been named as 30-year-old Svitlana Lukyanchuk, from Lviv.

Orphaned as a child, she was raised by her aunt before she went on to study at the Bogomolets National Medical University.

After graduating, she worked as a paediatric nephrologist at Okhmatdyt.

Ms Lukyanchuk will be buried in Lviv near her parents at Holoskiv Cemetery.

Russia may be loathe to admit the impacts of Ukrainian attacks on its territory, but footage emerging from its southern Volgograd region speaks for itself.

Explosions were heard in the town of Kalach-on-the-Don overnight, said the Baza Telegram channel, which has sources in Russian law enforcement.

Then, video of an oil depot set ablaze - fire leaping into the air and smoke visible from a distance.

Regional governor Andrei Bocharov said it was caused by falling drone debris destroyed by air defence systems - but the region was not included in a Russian defence ministry list of repelled attacks.

The refinery was hit by Ukrainian drones, an unnamed  security source told Reuters, alongside the Akhtubinsk airfield in Russia's southern Astrakhan region and an electricity substation in the Rostov region.

Switzerland has announced new sanctions against Russia.

Pointing to a package of measures adopted by the EU against Russia on 24 June, the Swiss economy ministry said in a statement that it would impose sanctions within its jurisdiction on a further 69 individuals and 86 entities.

These sanctions mainly target "businesspersons, propagandists, members of the armed forces and judiciary, persons responsible for the deportation of Ukrainian children" and members of Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB), it said.

The newly sanctioned entities include companies operating in Russia's defence industry and firms in the financial and trade sectors involved in circumventing sanctions, it added.

This means that more than 2,200 individuals and entities are now subject to the sanctions listings, the ministry said.

The Swiss government also said that it had placed an advertising ban on media outlets Voice of Europe, RIA Novosti, Izvestia and Rossiyskaya Gazeta "owing to Russia's continuous propaganda and disinformation campaigns".

In contrast to the EU, these media are not subject to a broadcasting ban in Switzerland, the ministry added.

Vladimir Putin is showing that "norms of behaviour do not apply to him" by attacking a Ukrainian children's hospital ahead of the NATO summit, said a former head of the Royal Navy.

Combined with his dealings with the North Korean leader and Hungarian prime minister, Mr Putin is putting on a "show of strength", Admiral Lord Alan West told Sky News.

The Russian leader is also "annoyed" his so-called peace deal has been flatly rejected.

"He has effectively said: 'I don't agree with the world order that has worked so well since 1946. I will make my own world order'."

For this reason, an emergency meeting of the UN security council taking place today over the strikes will not make "any difference at all to him", Admiral Lord West said.

Mr Putin will continue his actions so long as he has "got the Chinese supporting him, he's able to get weapons from the North Koreans and there are still some large countries that won't condemn him, for example India".

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travel vaccination uk

IMAGES

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    Travel vaccination advice. If you're planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world. Vaccinations are available to protect you against infections such as yellow fever, typhoid and hepatitis A. In the UK, the NHS routine immunisation (vaccination) schedule ...

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    Vaccination involves a course of 3 injections before you travel, usually given over a period of 28 days. If you're bitten, licked or scratched by an animal in a country where rabies is a problem, further doses of rabies vaccine (with or without a special anti-rabies injection given around the wound) may be required as emergency treatment.

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    Thanks to the success of the UK's vaccine and booster rollout, the government is now able to reduce the number of travel restrictions, ensuring there is a more proportionate system in place for ...

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    In the UK there is a routine vaccine programme where vaccines are given at set ages to protect against several diseases, this is called the 'UK Vaccination Schedule'. For some diseases a course of several doses of vaccine is needed, while for others just one dose of vaccine is enough. Although giving routine vaccines is often associated ...

  9. UK travel update: government waives quarantine for arrivals fully

    From 4am 2 August 2021, passengers who are fully vaccinated in the EU with vaccines authorised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or in the USA with vaccines authorised by the Food and Drug ...

  10. Travel Advice and Vaccines

    Travel Advice and Vaccines. If you're planning to travel outside the UK, you may need to be vaccinated against some of the serious diseases found in other parts of the world. Vaccinations are available to protect you against infections such as yellow fever , typhoid and hepatitis A. In the UK, the NHS routine immunisation (vaccination ...

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    Travel vaccinations & health advice. When you travel abroad you may be exposed to diseases you haven't come across before, against which vaccines or antimalarials can protect you. Simply tell us which countries you will visit and we will tell you which of these diseases are risks.

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    If rabies exposures occur while in the United Kingdom, rabies vaccines are typically available throughout most of the country. Rabies pre-exposure vaccination considerations include whether travelers 1) will be performing occupational or recreational activities that increase risk for exposure to potentially rabid animals and 2) might have ...

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    Hepatitis B. Rabies. Yellow Fever. Meningitis ACWY. Japanese Encephalitis. Affinity Care can provide NHS vaccines for patients who complete the travel assessment below. Ideally, you should submit this form 6 weeks prior to travelling as some vaccines can take up to 4 weeks to provide effective protection. If you are travelling in less than 4 ...

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    Immunizations - travel: Summary. The following diseases are endemic in many regions of the world, particularly in hotter or less well-developed countries, and travellers to certain areas may require vaccination against some or all the following illnesses: Hepatitis A. Meningococcal meningitis. Poliomyelitis. Tetanus. Typhoid fever. Yellow fever.

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  17. The ultimate guide to travel vaccinations

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  28. Ukraine war latest: Chinese troops arrive in Belarus for military

    In the wake of Moscow's deadliest airstrikes in Ukraine for months, China and Belarus have started joint military exercises near the Polish border - all on the eve of a NATO summit in Washington.