ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Sustainable development for film-induced tourism: from the perspective of value perception.

Kui Yi,

  • 1 School of Business and Trade, Nanchang Institute of Science & Technology, Nanchang, China
  • 2 Media Art Research Center, Jiangxi Institute of Fashion Technology, Nanchang, China
  • 3 Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou, China
  • 4 Department of Art Integration, Daejin University, Pocheon, South Korea
  • 5 School of Business, Foshan University, Foshan, China
  • 6 College of Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China
  • 7 School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China

The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism, and the research on the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of film-induced tourism is relatively limited. Therefore, from the perspective of the integration of culture and industry, the research explores the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development between film-induced culture and film-induced industry through a questionnaire survey of 1,054 tourism management personnel, combined with quantitative empirical methods. The conclusion shows that the degree of integration of culture and tourism is an important mediating role that affects the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of film-induced tourism, and the development of film-induced tourism depends on the integration of culture and industry. Constructing a diversified industrial integration model according to local conditions and determining the development path of resource, technology, market, product integration, and administrative management can become the general trend of the future development of film-induced tourism.

Introduction

As an emerging industry, cultural tourism can make up for the economic difficulties caused by the weak growth of the primary and secondary industries, and replace it as a new driving force for economic growth ( Liu et al., 2021b ). As recognized by both the academic community and industry, cultural tourism products greatly impact tourism destination development; souvenir, local cuisines, and films/television programs can promote tourism destinations ( Liu et al., 2021a , b ). Among them, film/television is the most influential form of art in today’s society. Film and television can help potential tourists to have some sensory and emotional cognitions through empathy and vicarious feeling to the tourist destinations mentioned in the films ( Kim and Kim, 2018 ; Pérez García et al., 2021 ), thereby generating tourism motivation and ultimately promoting tourism behaviors. Film and television, without exception, have integrated commerciality and artistry since birth, and form a unique form of culture ( Riley et al., 1998 ).

Hence, these significant economic effects have been widely investigated by researchers from different perspectives, such as promotion of local brands ( Liu et al., 2021a ), and changes in aesthetic information dissemination ( Kim et al., 2019 ). With in-depth studies, researchers have identified the profound connotation of the rapid development of film-induced tourism: the extension of the immersive tourism ( Marafa et al., 2020 ), the endowment of modern fashion labels for tourism destinations ( Teng and Chen, 2020 ), and multi-dimensional integrations of modern media technology and traditional entertainment industry.

Culture is the soul of tourism, and tourism is an important carrier of culture. Although the experience of film/television is different from tourism—the former is provided to people by means of image transmission, and the latter is realized by the way of people moving—but the essence is both cultural experience ( Syafrini et al., 2020 ; Senbeto and Hon, 2021 ). The connotation and the applied research of film-induced tourism reveal the complexity and diversity of the integrations of modern media and traditional entertainment.

The traditional glimmering style sightseeing tour is just a shallow taste, and often cannot make tourists get a deep enjoyment. Film-induced tourism is different, mature film-induced tourism products can bring tourists wholehearted relaxation and enjoyment, and make tourists’ self-worth better reflect. To clarify the inherent characteristics of film-induced tourism, the interactive observation of both the film and television subject and the tourism subject provides a feasible solution. Film/television programs are the expression and substantiveness of culture ( Yi et al., 2020 ). Tourism as an economic carrier is the pattern and standardization of the industry ( Yen and Croy, 2016 ). The development of film-induced tourism relies on the mutual integration of culture and industry.

With the evolution of the world, sustainable development is leading the way in every industry including tourism. The early understanding of sustainable development in the academic community refers to meeting the needs of the current generation without damaging the needs of future generations’ development ( Jabareen, 2008 ; Yi et al., 2021a ). Based on this concept, the United Nations has formulated 17 sustainable development goals, proposed new standards for the prosperity and development of the earth, and standardized the assessment methods and indicators for sustainable development ( Böhringer and Jochem, 2007 ; Hacking and Guthrie, 2008 ; Singh et al., 2009 ). Since then, the concept of sustainable development has been fully implemented and has gradually become a well-known concept from the perspectives of the environment, economy, and society ( Adedoyin et al., 2021 ; Diep et al., 2021 ; Zhou et al., 2021 ). Currently, these three dimensions are identified as the motivations and mechanisms of sustainable development ( Steffen et al., 2015 ; Svensson and Wagner, 2015 ). Specifically, challenges in sustainable development are vital issues for exploring social and economic development. Economic benefits are the main dynamics of continuous action ( Hoogendoorn et al., 2015 ), with social effects as the main motivation of practice ( Williams and Schaefer, 2013 ), and environmental effects as the basic assurances of all activities ( Halme and Korpela, 2014 ). Hence, sustainable development research help explore the path of the industry development. The dynamic mechanism of sustainable development builds the foundation for the long-term influence of the culture and provides the way for continuous development and expansion of industrial effects ( Waheed et al., 2020 ). At present, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have investigated the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development for film-induced tourism. The existing studies which include the sustainable development dynamic mechanism can be divided into three aspects:

(1) The macro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Wen et al., 2018 ); (2) The sustainable development concept in the exploration of film-induced tourism ( Gong and Tung, 2017 ; Teng, 2021 ); (3) The micro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Suni and Komppula, 2012 ). Afterward, most of the studies believe that the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development is affected by its resource development, innovation mode, or artistic attractions. However, these have not yet conducted a quantitative study of the endogenous interactions between culture and industry. Accordingly, we try to fill the research gap; we study the relationship between culture and industry in film-induced tourism through structural equation modeling to promote the sustainable development dynamics brought about the integration of culture and industry.

Literature Review

Film-induced culture and tourism industry.

Film-induced culture plays a vital role in the global advertisement system. It is an effective approach for the advertisement of regional values and soft power, and it is a good pathway for cultural output and value proposition ( Yi et al., 2020 ). With the advance of economic development, consumers have broken the restrictions of basic needs spending ( Sun et al., 2017 , 2021 ; Du et al., 2020 ), and the needs for higher-level cultural consumption are becoming increasingly important ( Wang et al., 2020a , b ; Li et al., 2021 ). Film-induced culture is by no means limited to entertainment culture, and film-induced products are by no means limited to spiritual and cultural consumer goods ( Chen, 2018 ). Film/television is also a mass media. Film-induced culture has an unprecedented impact on people’s ways of thinking, social cognition, behavioral habits, and values, showing unique cultural tension and becoming an important structure of people’s spiritual life ( Misra, 2000 ; Janssen et al., 2008 ). Otherwise, as a fast-growing important new tourism trend, film-induced tourism creates connections between characters, places, stories, and tourists, and is inspired to immerse themselves in films to relive film-generated and film-driven emotions ( Riley et al., 1998 ). Essentially, both film and tourism provide an opportunity to relive or experience, see and learn novelties through entertainment and fun ( Teng, 2021 ). Film-induced tourism increases the overall economic effect of tourism industry and establishes the bonds of film and tourism industry. It provides not only pleasure and satisfaction for film-induced tourists, but also adequate and novel learning experience. The latest research trends are moving toward merging or collaborating two fields that already have similar goals.

The integration of film-induced culture spreads information through film-induced programs to “maximize” the effect of tourism cultural brands ( Huang and Liu, 2018 ). The fundamental reason is that the penetration of film-induced culture has driven the transformation and upgrading of tourism consumption ( Michael et al., 2020 ), which in turn makes film-induced culture a resource for tourism development, amplifies the effect of cultural integration in the process of transformation, and further enhances the influence of the tourism industry ( Marafa et al., 2020 ). The establishment of film-induced cities and film-induced bases creates the advantages of film-induced culture agglomeration, and the innovative path of developing film-induced cultural resources oriented by the tourism industry is becoming more and more popular ( Ringle, 2018 ). Cultural resources are further optimized and reorganized, and film-induced culture will gain a series of new integrated development in the promotion of tourism industry model ( Xin and Mossig, 2017 ). On the one hand, the film-induced bases can be used for film/television production, and on the other hand, it is an important place for tourism activities, which truly reflects the integration from products, markets, enterprises, and industries in film-induced tourism industry ( Stuckey, 2021 ). Accordingly, some researchers believe that the establishment of Hollywood Studios in 1963 marked the official beginning of film-induced tourism. Hence, film-induced culture can promote the tourism industry to shape brand culture, integrate useful resources, guide consumer trends, and induce convergence effect for rapid development and innovation ( Wu and Lai, 2021 ). Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H1a: The development of film-induced culture is positively related to the growth of the tourism industry.
H1b: The cultural development in film-induced tourism is positively correlated to the degree of cultural and tourism integration.
H1c: The development of the tourism industry is positively correlated to the degree of culture and tourism integration.

Culture and Tourism Integration and Sustainable Development

The integration of culture and tourism is not only the objective need for the mutual prosperity of culture and tourism, but also the inevitable trend of the development. The elements compete, cooperate and co-evolve with each other, so that an emerging industry can be formed, and it has experienced “grinding-integration-harmony” of the dynamic development process ( Jovicic, 2016 ; Wang and Yi, 2020 ). Culture and tourism have a certain basis for mutual benefit and cooperation: for tourism, the integration of cultural-related content helps to acquire extensive knowledge, distant experience, and strong care; for culture, it is conducive to the protection and inheritance of cultural resources, image building, and propagation ( Loulanski and Loulanski, 2011 ; Jørgensen and McKercher, 2019 ). The integration of culture and tourism is an intimate contact between “poems and dreams,” which better meets people’s diverse needs for a beautiful life ( He et al., 2021 ). However, sustainable development refers to comprehensive and sustainable advancements in ecological, social, and economic aspects. The cognition that based on these three goals can be used to explore the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism.

In the dimension of sustainable ecological development, with the advent of the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution, the world is entering a new era. The utilization of resources is not limited to the development of physical resources but is more prone to the rational use of new resources, such as talented person, technology, intelligence, and data ( Waheed et al., 2020 ; Zhang et al., 2020 ; Li et al., 2021 ), cultural resources, such as historical culture, red culture, and folk culture, are integrated with tourism resources, such as landscape pastoral, to develop complementary advantages. The maximization of resource utilization has become the key to the sustainable development of the film-induced tourism society, and culture has become a regulator of various innovation factors, which promotes the scientific management of technological and industrial resources ( Delai and Takahashi, 2011 ; Liu et al., 2021b ). When transforming and utilizing film-induced cultural resources, do not trample or destroy the ecological environment for tourism development, and comprehensively optimize the tourism environment and tourism routes. Environmentalism and related laws and regulations have begun to pay attention to tourists’ needs ( Li et al., 2020 ). Hence, the further integration of culture and tourism can reflect the transformation of the overall ecological commitment ( Zhou et al., 2021 ), and the resulting human–environment relationship has become a new aspect of sustainable development.

In the dimension of sustainable social development, on the one hand, the improvement of cultural quality of the whole society is a prerequisite for the organic integration of culture and tourism ( Tien et al., 2021 ), with harmonious coexistence becoming the core aspect of economic and cultural development of the new era, tourists and other stakeholders of the film-induced tourism industry begins to focus on human capital development, social recognition, job creation, and health and safety-related issues ( Choi and Ng, 2011 ). With the deepening of research, researchers found that the above-mentioned problems are ideologically attributed to culture and are the society’s force for inducing the sustainable development of industries ( Cai and Zhou, 2014 ). The extension and connotation of tourism need the guidance of tourism culture. Cultural display or visitable production expands the scope of displayable culture, from material to non-material, to the integration of non-material and material, and then to the contemporary creative cultural display, which makes culture continuously “commoditized” ( Silberberg, 1995 ; Marques and Pinho, 2021 ). At present, many scholars have reached a consensus that the integration of culture and industry can promote the construction of the social community ( Jakhar, 2017 ; Yi et al., 2021b ) and promote the relevant members of the society to change their misconduct, thereby strengthening the sustainable development of the film and television industry and the tourism industry.

In the dimension of sustainable economic development, scholars generally agree that economic factors, which refer to the renewable and non-renewable resources invested in the production process, are composed of factors, such as cost, profit, and business development ( Mamede and Gomes, 2014 ; Wagner, 2015 ). Given the direct impact of economic effect on tourist activities is significant, most researchers directly view economic factors as the main driving force for the sustainable development of film-induced tourism, owing to the direct influence of economic effects on tourists’ tourism activities ( Horbach et al., 2013 ; Hojnik and Ruzzier, 2016 ). As been defined by researchers, sustainable economic development involves the exploration and innovation of business models, creating market opportunities, the processes of resolving unsustainable environmental and social problems ( Schaltegger et al., 2016 ). When film-induced culture is continuously produced into cultural tourism products, the commercial interests of tourism sales promote the industrialization and gradually form a complete industrial chain-cultural tourism industry. In the studies of film-induced tourism, many researchers view film-induced culture as a resource for creating new business models and market opportunities and regard the integration of film-induced culture with the tourism industry as a solution for unsustainable development problems. In summary, in film-induced tourism, in both the ecological, social, and economic dimensions, the integration of culture and industry will influence the path of sustainable development. Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H2a: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the ecology (human–environment integration).
H2b: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and tourism industry is positively correlated to the sustainable development of the society (harmonious coexistence).
H2c: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the economy.

Above all, we proposed the following effect hypothesis:

H3a: Film-induced tourism culture has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree;
H3b: Film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree.

Methodology

To get a better and professional understanding of the dynamic mechanism of the culture and industry associated with film-induced tourism, the research subjects are limited to the management staff of the film-induced tourism industry. A total of 1,200 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,054 valid questionnaires were collected, with a recovery rate of 87.8%. The collected questionnaires were randomly divided into two equal sets (527 questionnaires in each set): one dataset is used for exploratory factor analysis and the other is used for confirmatory factor analysis. The demographic characteristics of the sample population are shown in Table 1 . From Table 1 we can see, most of the responders are males (accounting for 68.9%), in the age groups of 25–35 and 36–45 (the total number of the two age groups accounting for 65.3%) and have a bachelor’s degree (accounting for 54.9%). 28% of the responders are tourism area managers; 34.7% of the responders are government department managers; and 37.3% of the responders are general staff. And the demographic characteristics of the responders generally follow the demographic distribution of the entire population in the area, indicating a good representativeness of the data and makes it an effective data source.

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Table 1 . Sample basic information.

We draw on the mature scales used in previous studies for reference, and the initial scale was formed after corresponding modifications according to research topic. Then, two scholars who have been engaged in film-induced tourism and sustainable development were invited for analysis and discussion, and the scale was modified and improved. We use 5-level Likert scale to measure all variables, with 1 indicating “very unimportant” and 5 indicating “very important.” The specific measurement items and reliability are shown in the appendix. In addition, SPSS 26.0 was used for validity test, and KMO was 0.906 (>0.8). The results show that the scale has good reliability and validity, indicating that there is internal consistency among the variables ( Table 2 ).

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Table 2 . Measurement items and reliability.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed ( Table 3 ) that P<0.01, and the Composite Reliability of all variables was 0.622–0.865, so that the polymerization validity and the convergence validity is good. AVE was in a reasonable range. Therefore, the results of CFA all meet the standard, and all dimensions have good convergence validity.

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Table 3 . Confirmatory factor analysis.

Correlation Analysis

Through the correlation coefficient test, it can be seen that the values below the diagonal are, respectively, the correlation coefficients between potential variables ( Table 4 ). Each potential variable has different connotations in theory, and each variable has relatively high correlation and good discriminant validity.

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Table 4 . Correlation analysis.

Goodness of Fit of the Structural Model

Based on the previous research results, the path relationship diagram between potential variables and observed variables has been built, the goodness of fit of the model to be verified have been tested from AMOS 26.0. The main fitting indicators all meet the ideal standard, that is, the model fitting effect is ideal.

Hypothesis Testing

In order to further test the hypothesis proposed above, we run a structural equation model with mediation (see Figure 1 ). The results are shown in Table 5 . There is a correlation between film-induced culture and film-induced industry ( r  = 0.720). Film-induced culture has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.590, C R  = 7.495, p  < 0.01); The film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.441, C R  = 6.326, p  < 0.01), then hypothesis 1a, 1b, 1c are supported. The degree of integration has a significant positive impact on film-induced tourism ( r  = 0.836, C R  = 11.817, p  < 0.01), so hypothesis 2a, 2B, and 2C are also supported.

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Figure 1 . Structural equation model. FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI: film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry; IRBV, integrated resource-based view; IEBV, integrated ecology-based view; ISBV, integrated space-based view; ES, economic sustainability; HEC, human–environment coordination; HC, harmonious coexistence.

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Table 5 . Goodness of fit of the structural model.

Empirical Testing of Mediating Effects

In order to test the reliability of the path hypothesis, we further use Bootstrapping to calculate the mediating effect of culture and tourism integration. Bootstrapping test performs 3,000 samplings and selects a 95% confidence interval, then the final test results are shown in Table 6 , so both hypothesis H3a and H3b are assumed to hold ( Table 7 ).

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Table 6 . Hypothesis testing.

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Table 7 . Empirical testing of mediating effects.

Given previous scholars’ studies on film-induced tourism ( Ringle, 2018 ; Marafa et al., 2020 ), we assume that cultural tourism will significantly affect the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development. More specifically, we believe that the organic integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry will have a significant impact on economic, social, and ecological sustainable development, which are the three dimensions of sustainable development. The results generally support our hypothesis that we view culture and tourism as a systematic whole rather than separate them and that culture and tourism integration is not simply “culture + tourism” or “tourism + culture.” We also confirm that the degree of integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry plays an important mediate role in the sustainable development of film-induced tourism. Although culture and tourism seem to be combined with each other in contemporary society, they have not developed the sustainable development dynamics of products and services innovation, nor developed a systematic operation mechanism. Consequently, the integration of culture and tourism is not to mechanically copy the two independent elements, but the key lies in the functional replacement and format innovation, complementary advantages, and the optimal combination of industrial elements.

Managerial Implications

As culture and tourism are two huge and complex systems, both have relatively mature management operation mechanism, working path, industrial rules, and industry norms, while they are currently characterized by high growth and rapid development ( Richards, 2018 ; McKercher, 2020 ). Therefore, in constructing the path of the integration of culture and tourism to promote sustainable development, the resource characteristics, functional differences, and technological advantages of film-induced culture and tourism industry should be fully considered in theory, and their similarity and relevance should be taken into account. In practice, we should not only make full use of the location conditions, resource endowments, and social and economic systems of film-induced culture and tourism destinations, but constantly identify the intersection points of products, industries, and enterprises according to the changes in market demand, and construct diversified industrial integration modes according to local conditions to determine develop directions in the integration of resources, technology, market and products, and administrative management.

From the perspective of tourism industry, support the development of organization forms that meet the needs of film-induced tourism development. The integration of industry should finally be reflected in the integration of organizations. Although the fundamental dynamics for the development of film-induced tourism is the development of market demand ( Connell, 2005 ), it needs enterprises to be discovered and satisfied to find business opportunities. We suggest relevant departments relax film-induced tourism business licensing, strengthen information services, support enterprises to explore new business areas, support various cooperation, and even merger and acquisitions. From the perspective of film-induced culture, enrich the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism. Film-induced tourism should not be equated with general implanted advertising or simply build film-induced bases, but should dig deeply into the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism, closely focus on the core theme of film/television works, and deeply develop “post-film products” related to tourism derivative industry, and then systematically integrate them to form a cross-industry and compound film-induced tourism industry chain ( Young and Young, 2008 ; Fan and Yu, 2021 ). In order to promote sustainable development, we further suppose that we should strengthen the research on film-induced tourism and explore the development mode and regulations of film-induced tourism.

Limitations and Future Directions

This study provides some enlightenments on the theoretical exploration and practical management of film-induced tourism. Inevitably, there are several limitations, which can be addressed in future studies. First, the verification of the hypotheses is through the empirical analysis of collected questionnaires, lacking the support of actual cases. This can be improved by case analysis in follow-up studies. Second, the degree of integration between culture and industry is measured and defined by their characteristics in this study. However, the integration may also be affected by their underlying relationship. Their spatial production characteristics are also valuable for further investigation. In summary, in this research, the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism has been investigated, and conclusions have been drawn. This topic, however, still requires in-depth follow-up investigations from the research community.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Ethics Statement

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.

Author Contributions

KY contributed to the empirical work, the analysis of the results, and the writing of the first draft. JinZ and JiaZ supported the total work of the KY. YZ and CX contributed to overall quality and supervision the part of literature organization and empirical work. RT contributed to developing research hypotheses and revised the overall manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This project was supported by the General Project of the National Social Science Fund of China: Tracking Research on the Development of Western Urban Politics (20BZZ055), General project of Humanities and Social Sciences General Research Program of the Ministry of Education: Research on the Generation Mechanism and Resolution Path of “Fragmentation Phenomenon” of Urban Social Governance (19YJA810002), Social Science Planning General Project in Jiangxi Province (No. 21XW06), Jiangxi Province Culture and Art Science Planning General Project (No. YG2021087), and Jiangxi Province Colleges Humanities and Social Science Project (No. GL20214).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: film-induced tourism, tourism destination, sustainable development, dynamic mechanism, culture and industry integration

Citation: Yi K, Zhu J, Zeng Y, Xie C, Tu R and Zhu J (2022) Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the Perspective of Value Perception. Front. Psychol . 13:875084. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.875084

Received: 13 February 2022; Accepted: 13 May 2022; Published: 03 June 2022.

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Copyright © 2022 Yi, Zhu, Zeng, Xie, Tu and Zhu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Yanqin Zeng, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Film tourism

The answer to becoming part of your favourite movie?

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characteristics of film induced tourism

  • Karolina Tomala &
  • Florence Faber  

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The following chapter will introduce the reader into the relatively new and growing tourism niche “Film Tourism” by giving you an overview of the whole topic. Film tourism can be defined as a branch of cultural tourism (Zimmermann, 2003, p.76) and refers to the growing interest and demand for locations which became popular due to their appearance in films and television series. In his interpretation, Zimmermann describes film tourism as all forms of travelling to destinations, which in general enable a connection with the world of film (Zimmermann, 2003, p.76).Further, it can be divided into three separate sub-categories, including film promotion tourism, travel film tourism4 and film induced tourism as illustrated in the diagram below. The third category will be the main focus in this chapter.

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Tomala, K., Faber, F. (2011). Film tourism. In: Papathanassis, A. (eds) The Long Tail of Tourism. Gabler. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-8349-6231-7_16

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Accueil Numéros 9.1. Interviews Local Aspects and Impacts of Film...

Local Aspects and Impacts of Film-induced Tourism

Texte intégral.

  • 1 Stefan Roesch, The Experiences of Film Location Tourists (Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2009) (...)

2 Visit California homepage. https://www.visitcalifornia.com/road-trips/movie-locations-tour/ <accessed on January 12, 2022>.

  • 3 “Back to Bridgerton – 11 filming locations from the hit show,” Visit Britain. https://www.visitbrit (...)
  • 4 “Game of Thrones,” Discover Northern Ireland. https://discovernorthernireland.com/things-to-do/tv-a (...)
  • 5 “Film Tourism,” Tourism New Zealand . https://www.tourismnewzealand.com/markets-insights/sectors/fil (...)

1 In The Experiences of Film Location Tourists , Stefan Roesch mentioned that “film tourism is a specific pattern of tourism that drives visitors to see screened places during or after the production of a feature film or a television production.” 1 This trend has now definitely been taken up by different national and local tourism industries: California, home to many Hollywood studios, has of course its own specific internet page dedicated to film/TV tourism, 2 and VisitBritain , which had notably highlighted many Harry Potter -themed destinations, now focusses on Back to Bridgerton-11 filming Locations From the Hit Show . 3 Discover Northern Ireland has been surfing on the worldwide success of Game of Thrones 4 while New Zealand, which welcomed the famed shooting of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, devotes one section to film tourism on Tourism New Zealand . 5

6 See for example https://www.wbstudiotour.co.uk or https://www.gameofthronesstudiotour.com <accessed on January 12, 2022>.

  • 7 « Suivez les traces du Da Vinci Code au cœur de paris », City Breaker . https://city-breaker.com/da- (...)
  • 8 Different modifications were then added. CNC, Crédit d’impôt international, https://www.cnc.fr/prof (...)
  • 9 Variety Staff, “France, Capital of Film, Provides 30% Rebate to Foreign Producers,” Variety.com . ht (...)

2 Films and TV series also generate their own dedicated tourism activities, whether it be on their official sites 6 or through private companies’ like City Breaker’s still active Da Vinci Code -themed tour. 7 France is a rather late comer to the full panoply of film-induced tourism as the law facilitating hosting foreign runaway productions on its territory was only voted in 2009. 8 Since then Dunkirk (Christopher Nolan, 2017), Fantastic Beast s: The Crimes of Grindelwald (David Yates, 2018), Inception (Christopher Nolan, 2010), M:I – Impossible - Fallout (Christopher McQuarrie, 2018), Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (Guy Ritchie, 2011), Thor (Keneth Branagh, 2011), Wonder Woman (Patty Jenkins, 2017) and the TV series Merlin (Shine and BBC Wales, 2008-2012) were among the big-budget productions that have benefited from the enticing French tax rebate. 9

  • 10 For more on this, see for example the works of Sue Beeton, Kerry Seagrave Daniel Steinhart and Jane (...)
  • 11 Busby, G.  and  Klug, J. ,  “Movie-induced Tourism: The Challenge of Measurement and Other Issues , ”   Jou (...)

3 As studied by several academics 10 across a variety of disciplines (for example film studies, economics, geography, adaptation studies, etc.), national legislature’s passage of such tax rebates is expected to reap benefits during and after the shooting of films and TV series on their territories. Film/TV-induced tourism is one of the expected benefits, which has been catalogued into nine different forms, according to Busby and Klug: 11

Table 1: Forms and Characteristics of Movie Tourism

12 Roesch, The Experiences of Film Location Tourists , 14.

4 This section presents some of these forms through three interviews with “involved tourism stakeholders” 12 taking about different local aspects and impacts of film-induced tourism.

  • 13 Simon Hudson and J.R. Brent Ritchie, “ Promoting Destinations via Film Tourism: An Empirical Identif (...)
  • 14 CNC, “L’impact des tournages sur le tourisme,” and “Cinéma et tourisme font bon ménage à Dunkerque, (...)
  • 15 Sarah Kelley, “Tourism, Cinema and TV Series Conference,” Transatlantica 2, (2018). https://journal (...)
  • 16 The film sheds light on Operation Dynamo during which the allied troops were evacuated from the Fre (...)

5 The interview “ Dunkerque and Dunkirk, ” which can be said to embody the first four forms of Busby and Klug’s classification, highlights the now widespread example of the impact of the “placement of destinations in movies and its influence on tourism” 13 through the case of Dunkirk (Christopher Nolan, 2017), a film that benefited from the French tax rebate and led to a case study by the CNC. 14 In this interview derived from the 2018 day-conference on Tourism, Film and TV Series , 15 Jean-Yves Frémont, town councilor in employment, economic development and tourism, and Sabine l’Hermet, director of Dunkerque tourist office, detail how the locally-shot American blockbuster 16 points to the link between the film industry and the role of tourism in local and regional development, notably for the French Hauts-de-France territory and the city where those historical events took place.

17 Busby and  Klug, “Movie-induced Tourism: The Challenge of Measurement and Other Issues,”   318 .

6 In the “Bayeux and the Game of Thrones ® tapestry” interview, which can be related to the fourth and fifth forms defined by Busby and Klug, 17 Fanny Garbe, head of advertising and communication at the French Bayeux Museum, and Séverine Lecart, consumer marketing manager at Tourism Ireland, explain how Bayeux came to benefit from the television series’ Bayeux-inspired tapestry. The now famous Game of Thrones ® television series has no physical links to Bayeux nor its surrounding area. But its subsequent Bayeux-inspired tapestry came to be exhibited in Bayeux as its layout visually echoes its ‘ancestor’s’ depiction of the conquest of England in 1066 by the Duke of Normandy. Commissioned by HBO and Tourism Ireland, the Game of Thrones® tapestry has thus a narrative and visual link to Bayeux and is another example of the impact film/TV-induced tourism can have on regional economic development.

  • 18 The festival presents itself as “the biggest European event entirely dedicated to television series (...)

7 Finally, film/TV-induced tourism can also be linked to festivals, which can be related to the third and ninth forms described in Busby and  Klug’s classification .  Derived from the exchange also held at the 2018 day-conference on Tourism, Film and TV Series , the interview with Karina Hocquette, education, and audience-development manager for the Séries Mania festival, underlines the festival’s impact on the French Hauts-de-France territory. The city of Lille in Northern France has in fact been hosting Séries Mania 18 since 2018 with different Séries Mania-labelled events and performances linked to the best international television series. It has subsequently led to a Series-Mania impact on the tourism industry for the Hauts-de-France region.

1 Stefan Roesch, The Experiences of Film Location Tourists (Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2009), 6.

3 “Back to Bridgerton – 11 filming locations from the hit show,” Visit Britain. https://www.visitbritain.com/gb/en/bridgerton-11-filming-locations-hit-show <accessed on January 12, 2022>.

4 “Game of Thrones,” Discover Northern Ireland. https://discovernorthernireland.com/things-to-do/tv-and-film/game-of-thrones <accessed on November 23, 2021>.

5 “Film Tourism,” Tourism New Zealand . https://www.tourismnewzealand.com/markets-insights/sectors/film-tourism/ <accessed on January 12,2022>.

7 « Suivez les traces du Da Vinci Code au cœur de paris », City Breaker . https://city-breaker.com/da-vinci-code-paris/ <accessed on January 12, 2022>.

8 Different modifications were then added. CNC, Crédit d’impôt international, https://www.cnc.fr/professionnels/aides-et-financements/multi-sectoriel/production/credit-dimpot-international_778354 <accessed on November 29, 2021> and “Aperçu du système français de crédits d’impôts pour la production cinématographique et audiovisuelle, http://enter-law.com/french-tax-credit-for-film-and-tv-production/?lang=fr <accessed on November 30, 2021>.

9 Variety Staff, “France, Capital of Film, Provides 30% Rebate to Foreign Producers,” Variety.com . https://variety.com/2018/artisans/production/france-production-incentives-2-1202666453/ <accessed on January 11, 2022>.

10 For more on this, see for example the works of Sue Beeton, Kerry Seagrave Daniel Steinhart and Janet Wasko.

11 Busby, G.  and  Klug, J. ,  “Movie-induced Tourism: The Challenge of Measurement and Other Issues , ”   Journal of Vacation Marketing 7, no. 4 (October 2001):  318 .

13 Simon Hudson and J.R. Brent Ritchie, “ Promoting Destinations via Film Tourism: An Empirical Identification of Supporting Marketing Initiatives, ” Journal of Travel Research 44, (May 2006): 387-396. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237807231_Promoting_Destinations_via_Film_Tourism_An_Empirical_Identification_of_Supporting_Marketing_Initiatives <accessed on April 24, 2021>.

14 CNC, “L’impact des tournages sur le tourisme,” and “Cinéma et tourisme font bon ménage à Dunkerque,” CNC , https://www.cnc.fr/cinema/etudes-et-rapports/etudes-prospectives/limpact-des-tournages-sur-le-tourisme_227677 and https://www.cnc.fr/cinema/actualites/cinema-et-tourisme-font-bon-menage-a-dunkerque_44888 <both accessed on January 11, 2022>.

15 Sarah Kelley, “Tourism, Cinema and TV Series Conference,” Transatlantica 2, (2018). https://journals.openedition.org/transatlantica/13571 <accessed on June 30, 2021>.

16 The film sheds light on Operation Dynamo during which the allied troops were evacuated from the French city of Dunkerque in 1940.

18 The festival presents itself as “the biggest European event entirely dedicated to television series in Europe,”  Series Mania . https://seriesmania.com <accessed on June 9, 2021>.

Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique.

Nathalie Dupont , «  Local Aspects and Impacts of Film-induced Tourism  » ,  InMedia [En ligne], 9.1. | 2021, mis en ligne le 15 janvier 2022 , consulté le 01 juillet 2024 . URL  : http://journals.openedition.org/inmedia/3027 ; DOI  : https://doi.org/10.4000/inmedia.3027

Nathalie Dupont

Nathalie Dupont is Associate professor of American studies at the University du Littoral Côte d'Opale (ULCO). Her research focuses on the contemporary films produced by American studios, and what those films tell us about American society. It also focuses on the links between Hollywood and American Christians. She has published several articles on those subjects, as well as  Between Hollywood and Godlywood: the Case of Walden Media  (Peter Lang, London, 2015). She is a co-founder of CinEcoSA ( https://www.cinecosa.com ) and co-organizer of several of its conferences.

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Film-induced tourism

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Catherine Young

The purpose of this research is to explore the potential development of film-induced tourism. Exploratory research will focus on three locations where Oscar nominated films have been set and filmed. Film-induced tourism is currently a rich area for theoretical exploration (Hudson et al, 2006, Bolan et al, 2006, Bolan 2005, Beeton 2004). The research question is: To identify the critical success factors to build upon film-induced tourism in Ireland. The main method is case study research. Data analysis will draw on findings to compare and contrast how film locations in Ireland utilise films for tourism. The three Oscar nominated movies are The Quiet Man in Cong, Co Mayo, The Field in Leenane, Co. Galway and Ryan’s Daughter, Dunquin, Dingle Peninsula, Co. Kerry. To fully appreciate key factors it is essential to absorb strategic and policy insight into the research. This will compliment the case study research. A mixed method approach will be used. The Film-Induced Tourism Innovations Framework (FITI) demonstrates how current film locations utilise the movie for tourism. The outcome of this research is to provide a model to enhance film-induced tourism in Ireland. It can be used by local/regional/national tourist and government authorities. The implications of this model are numerous. Policy formation can be enhanced within this area. In practice a multitude of options could be explored such as websites, museums, film walking tours, festivals and events in the area of film-induced tourism. The results of this research will add to existing theory within the area of film-induced tourism. Keywords: tourism, film, Ireland, case study.

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This Masters dissertation considers the tourism niche of film-induced tourism (FIT) within the broader realm of heritage and cultural tourism (HCT). It sets out to identify the scope of different types of FIT, focusing specifically on “on-location film-induced tourism” (OLFIT). The genesis of FIT in the related niche of literary tourism is explored, thereby explaining the history and development of FIT. Furthermore, this dissertation sets out to identify key elements that are recognised as necessary for the functioning of OLFIT as well as those factors that determine the success and sustainability of OLFIT endeavours. Both the elements and factors necessary for OLFIT’s success and sustainability are elucidated with the use of international case studies, including The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit trilogies which are regarded as best-practice. A flow diagram-model has been devised to illustrate the interconnectivity of these elements and factors and can be applied to other situations. This is followed by an examination of the film and tourism industry in South Africa, thereby evaluating the potential of the country as an OLFIT destination.

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"This paper outlines the correlation between the power of film (both movies and television series) as a motivational and image-making tool and the attractiveness of tourism destinations. In the light of this relationship, our research analyses the phenomenon of film-induced tourism. Even this phenomenon has been recognized and reported, very few comprehensively studies of it have been published. The evidence that has been put forward to date has mostly been anecdotal, pointing towards the capacity of popular films and television series to attract tourists, in the form of enthusiastic fans and interested audience members. Despite the fact that statistics concerning directly the impact that films have had on tourism are limited, there are still some remarkable figures. Countries like UK, Australia, and New Zealand have an increasingly interest in studying and developing the film-induced tourism. Given the existence of this type of tourism and the potentially significant economic value of this strand of tourism to the economy, understanding the drivers of film-induced tourism and exploiting its effect are crucial issues to comprehend. This paper evaluates a number of key questions and provides a stronger insight into the nature of productions which can induce tourism and recommends ways in which this relation can be strategically maximized from the economic and cultural point of view. In the current context of decreasing the Romanian tourism and film industry development, approaching together their augmentation can represents a valid solution for both industries."

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Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the Perspective of Value Perception

Affiliations.

  • 1 School of Business and Trade, Nanchang Institute of Science & Technology, Nanchang, China.
  • 2 Media Art Research Center, Jiangxi Institute of Fashion Technology, Nanchang, China.
  • 3 Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou, China.
  • 4 Department of Art Integration, Daejin University, Pocheon, South Korea.
  • 5 School of Business, Foshan University, Foshan, China.
  • 6 College of Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
  • 7 School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China.
  • PMID: 35719553
  • PMCID: PMC9205642
  • DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.875084

The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism, and the research on the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of film-induced tourism is relatively limited. Therefore, from the perspective of the integration of culture and industry, the research explores the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development between film-induced culture and film-induced industry through a questionnaire survey of 1,054 tourism management personnel, combined with quantitative empirical methods. The conclusion shows that the degree of integration of culture and tourism is an important mediating role that affects the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of film-induced tourism, and the development of film-induced tourism depends on the integration of culture and industry. Constructing a diversified industrial integration model according to local conditions and determining the development path of resource, technology, market, product integration, and administrative management can become the general trend of the future development of film-induced tourism.

Keywords: culture and industry integration; dynamic mechanism; film-induced tourism; sustainable development; tourism destination.

Copyright © 2022 Yi, Zhu, Zeng, Xie, Tu and Zhu.

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Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the Perspective of Value Perception

1 School of Business and Trade, Nanchang Institute of Science & Technology, Nanchang, China

2 Media Art Research Center, Jiangxi Institute of Fashion Technology, Nanchang, China

3 Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou, China

Yanqin Zeng

4 Department of Art Integration, Daejin University, Pocheon, South Korea

Changqing Xie

5 School of Business, Foshan University, Foshan, China

Rungting Tu

6 College of Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China

Jianfei Zhu

7 School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China

Associated Data

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism, and the research on the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of film-induced tourism is relatively limited. Therefore, from the perspective of the integration of culture and industry, the research explores the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development between film-induced culture and film-induced industry through a questionnaire survey of 1,054 tourism management personnel, combined with quantitative empirical methods. The conclusion shows that the degree of integration of culture and tourism is an important mediating role that affects the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of film-induced tourism, and the development of film-induced tourism depends on the integration of culture and industry. Constructing a diversified industrial integration model according to local conditions and determining the development path of resource, technology, market, product integration, and administrative management can become the general trend of the future development of film-induced tourism.

Introduction

As an emerging industry, cultural tourism can make up for the economic difficulties caused by the weak growth of the primary and secondary industries, and replace it as a new driving force for economic growth ( Liu et al., 2021b ). As recognized by both the academic community and industry, cultural tourism products greatly impact tourism destination development; souvenir, local cuisines, and films/television programs can promote tourism destinations ( Liu et al., 2021a , b ). Among them, film/television is the most influential form of art in today’s society. Film and television can help potential tourists to have some sensory and emotional cognitions through empathy and vicarious feeling to the tourist destinations mentioned in the films ( Kim and Kim, 2018 ; Pérez García et al., 2021 ), thereby generating tourism motivation and ultimately promoting tourism behaviors. Film and television, without exception, have integrated commerciality and artistry since birth, and form a unique form of culture ( Riley et al., 1998 ).

Hence, these significant economic effects have been widely investigated by researchers from different perspectives, such as promotion of local brands ( Liu et al., 2021a ), and changes in aesthetic information dissemination ( Kim et al., 2019 ). With in-depth studies, researchers have identified the profound connotation of the rapid development of film-induced tourism: the extension of the immersive tourism ( Marafa et al., 2020 ), the endowment of modern fashion labels for tourism destinations ( Teng and Chen, 2020 ), and multi-dimensional integrations of modern media technology and traditional entertainment industry.

Culture is the soul of tourism, and tourism is an important carrier of culture. Although the experience of film/television is different from tourism—the former is provided to people by means of image transmission, and the latter is realized by the way of people moving—but the essence is both cultural experience ( Syafrini et al., 2020 ; Senbeto and Hon, 2021 ). The connotation and the applied research of film-induced tourism reveal the complexity and diversity of the integrations of modern media and traditional entertainment.

The traditional glimmering style sightseeing tour is just a shallow taste, and often cannot make tourists get a deep enjoyment. Film-induced tourism is different, mature film-induced tourism products can bring tourists wholehearted relaxation and enjoyment, and make tourists’ self-worth better reflect. To clarify the inherent characteristics of film-induced tourism, the interactive observation of both the film and television subject and the tourism subject provides a feasible solution. Film/television programs are the expression and substantiveness of culture ( Yi et al., 2020 ). Tourism as an economic carrier is the pattern and standardization of the industry ( Yen and Croy, 2016 ). The development of film-induced tourism relies on the mutual integration of culture and industry.

With the evolution of the world, sustainable development is leading the way in every industry including tourism. The early understanding of sustainable development in the academic community refers to meeting the needs of the current generation without damaging the needs of future generations’ development ( Jabareen, 2008 ; Yi et al., 2021a ). Based on this concept, the United Nations has formulated 17 sustainable development goals, proposed new standards for the prosperity and development of the earth, and standardized the assessment methods and indicators for sustainable development ( Böhringer and Jochem, 2007 ; Hacking and Guthrie, 2008 ; Singh et al., 2009 ). Since then, the concept of sustainable development has been fully implemented and has gradually become a well-known concept from the perspectives of the environment, economy, and society ( Adedoyin et al., 2021 ; Diep et al., 2021 ; Zhou et al., 2021 ). Currently, these three dimensions are identified as the motivations and mechanisms of sustainable development ( Steffen et al., 2015 ; Svensson and Wagner, 2015 ). Specifically, challenges in sustainable development are vital issues for exploring social and economic development. Economic benefits are the main dynamics of continuous action ( Hoogendoorn et al., 2015 ), with social effects as the main motivation of practice ( Williams and Schaefer, 2013 ), and environmental effects as the basic assurances of all activities ( Halme and Korpela, 2014 ). Hence, sustainable development research help explore the path of the industry development. The dynamic mechanism of sustainable development builds the foundation for the long-term influence of the culture and provides the way for continuous development and expansion of industrial effects ( Waheed et al., 2020 ). At present, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have investigated the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development for film-induced tourism. The existing studies which include the sustainable development dynamic mechanism can be divided into three aspects:

(1) The macro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Wen et al., 2018 ); (2) The sustainable development concept in the exploration of film-induced tourism ( Gong and Tung, 2017 ; Teng, 2021 ); (3) The micro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Suni and Komppula, 2012 ). Afterward, most of the studies believe that the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development is affected by its resource development, innovation mode, or artistic attractions. However, these have not yet conducted a quantitative study of the endogenous interactions between culture and industry. Accordingly, we try to fill the research gap; we study the relationship between culture and industry in film-induced tourism through structural equation modeling to promote the sustainable development dynamics brought about the integration of culture and industry.

Literature Review

Film-induced culture and tourism industry.

Film-induced culture plays a vital role in the global advertisement system. It is an effective approach for the advertisement of regional values and soft power, and it is a good pathway for cultural output and value proposition ( Yi et al., 2020 ). With the advance of economic development, consumers have broken the restrictions of basic needs spending ( Sun et al., 2017 , 2021 ; Du et al., 2020 ), and the needs for higher-level cultural consumption are becoming increasingly important ( Wang et al., 2020a , b ; Li et al., 2021 ). Film-induced culture is by no means limited to entertainment culture, and film-induced products are by no means limited to spiritual and cultural consumer goods ( Chen, 2018 ). Film/television is also a mass media. Film-induced culture has an unprecedented impact on people’s ways of thinking, social cognition, behavioral habits, and values, showing unique cultural tension and becoming an important structure of people’s spiritual life ( Misra, 2000 ; Janssen et al., 2008 ). Otherwise, as a fast-growing important new tourism trend, film-induced tourism creates connections between characters, places, stories, and tourists, and is inspired to immerse themselves in films to relive film-generated and film-driven emotions ( Riley et al., 1998 ). Essentially, both film and tourism provide an opportunity to relive or experience, see and learn novelties through entertainment and fun ( Teng, 2021 ). Film-induced tourism increases the overall economic effect of tourism industry and establishes the bonds of film and tourism industry. It provides not only pleasure and satisfaction for film-induced tourists, but also adequate and novel learning experience. The latest research trends are moving toward merging or collaborating two fields that already have similar goals.

The integration of film-induced culture spreads information through film-induced programs to “maximize” the effect of tourism cultural brands ( Huang and Liu, 2018 ). The fundamental reason is that the penetration of film-induced culture has driven the transformation and upgrading of tourism consumption ( Michael et al., 2020 ), which in turn makes film-induced culture a resource for tourism development, amplifies the effect of cultural integration in the process of transformation, and further enhances the influence of the tourism industry ( Marafa et al., 2020 ). The establishment of film-induced cities and film-induced bases creates the advantages of film-induced culture agglomeration, and the innovative path of developing film-induced cultural resources oriented by the tourism industry is becoming more and more popular ( Ringle, 2018 ). Cultural resources are further optimized and reorganized, and film-induced culture will gain a series of new integrated development in the promotion of tourism industry model ( Xin and Mossig, 2017 ). On the one hand, the film-induced bases can be used for film/television production, and on the other hand, it is an important place for tourism activities, which truly reflects the integration from products, markets, enterprises, and industries in film-induced tourism industry ( Stuckey, 2021 ). Accordingly, some researchers believe that the establishment of Hollywood Studios in 1963 marked the official beginning of film-induced tourism. Hence, film-induced culture can promote the tourism industry to shape brand culture, integrate useful resources, guide consumer trends, and induce convergence effect for rapid development and innovation ( Wu and Lai, 2021 ). Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H1a: The development of film-induced culture is positively related to the growth of the tourism industry.
H1b: The cultural development in film-induced tourism is positively correlated to the degree of cultural and tourism integration.
H1c: The development of the tourism industry is positively correlated to the degree of culture and tourism integration.

Culture and Tourism Integration and Sustainable Development

The integration of culture and tourism is not only the objective need for the mutual prosperity of culture and tourism, but also the inevitable trend of the development. The elements compete, cooperate and co-evolve with each other, so that an emerging industry can be formed, and it has experienced “grinding-integration-harmony” of the dynamic development process ( Jovicic, 2016 ; Wang and Yi, 2020 ). Culture and tourism have a certain basis for mutual benefit and cooperation: for tourism, the integration of cultural-related content helps to acquire extensive knowledge, distant experience, and strong care; for culture, it is conducive to the protection and inheritance of cultural resources, image building, and propagation ( Loulanski and Loulanski, 2011 ; Jørgensen and McKercher, 2019 ). The integration of culture and tourism is an intimate contact between “poems and dreams,” which better meets people’s diverse needs for a beautiful life ( He et al., 2021 ). However, sustainable development refers to comprehensive and sustainable advancements in ecological, social, and economic aspects. The cognition that based on these three goals can be used to explore the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism.

In the dimension of sustainable ecological development, with the advent of the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution, the world is entering a new era. The utilization of resources is not limited to the development of physical resources but is more prone to the rational use of new resources, such as talented person, technology, intelligence, and data ( Waheed et al., 2020 ; Zhang et al., 2020 ; Li et al., 2021 ), cultural resources, such as historical culture, red culture, and folk culture, are integrated with tourism resources, such as landscape pastoral, to develop complementary advantages. The maximization of resource utilization has become the key to the sustainable development of the film-induced tourism society, and culture has become a regulator of various innovation factors, which promotes the scientific management of technological and industrial resources ( Delai and Takahashi, 2011 ; Liu et al., 2021b ). When transforming and utilizing film-induced cultural resources, do not trample or destroy the ecological environment for tourism development, and comprehensively optimize the tourism environment and tourism routes. Environmentalism and related laws and regulations have begun to pay attention to tourists’ needs ( Li et al., 2020 ). Hence, the further integration of culture and tourism can reflect the transformation of the overall ecological commitment ( Zhou et al., 2021 ), and the resulting human–environment relationship has become a new aspect of sustainable development.

In the dimension of sustainable social development, on the one hand, the improvement of cultural quality of the whole society is a prerequisite for the organic integration of culture and tourism ( Tien et al., 2021 ), with harmonious coexistence becoming the core aspect of economic and cultural development of the new era, tourists and other stakeholders of the film-induced tourism industry begins to focus on human capital development, social recognition, job creation, and health and safety-related issues ( Choi and Ng, 2011 ). With the deepening of research, researchers found that the above-mentioned problems are ideologically attributed to culture and are the society’s force for inducing the sustainable development of industries ( Cai and Zhou, 2014 ). The extension and connotation of tourism need the guidance of tourism culture. Cultural display or visitable production expands the scope of displayable culture, from material to non-material, to the integration of non-material and material, and then to the contemporary creative cultural display, which makes culture continuously “commoditized” ( Silberberg, 1995 ; Marques and Pinho, 2021 ). At present, many scholars have reached a consensus that the integration of culture and industry can promote the construction of the social community ( Jakhar, 2017 ; Yi et al., 2021b ) and promote the relevant members of the society to change their misconduct, thereby strengthening the sustainable development of the film and television industry and the tourism industry.

In the dimension of sustainable economic development, scholars generally agree that economic factors, which refer to the renewable and non-renewable resources invested in the production process, are composed of factors, such as cost, profit, and business development ( Mamede and Gomes, 2014 ; Wagner, 2015 ). Given the direct impact of economic effect on tourist activities is significant, most researchers directly view economic factors as the main driving force for the sustainable development of film-induced tourism, owing to the direct influence of economic effects on tourists’ tourism activities ( Horbach et al., 2013 ; Hojnik and Ruzzier, 2016 ). As been defined by researchers, sustainable economic development involves the exploration and innovation of business models, creating market opportunities, the processes of resolving unsustainable environmental and social problems ( Schaltegger et al., 2016 ). When film-induced culture is continuously produced into cultural tourism products, the commercial interests of tourism sales promote the industrialization and gradually form a complete industrial chain-cultural tourism industry. In the studies of film-induced tourism, many researchers view film-induced culture as a resource for creating new business models and market opportunities and regard the integration of film-induced culture with the tourism industry as a solution for unsustainable development problems. In summary, in film-induced tourism, in both the ecological, social, and economic dimensions, the integration of culture and industry will influence the path of sustainable development. Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H2a: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the ecology (human–environment integration).
H2b: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and tourism industry is positively correlated to the sustainable development of the society (harmonious coexistence).
H2c: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the economy.

Above all, we proposed the following effect hypothesis:

H3a: Film-induced tourism culture has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree;
H3b: Film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree.

Methodology

To get a better and professional understanding of the dynamic mechanism of the culture and industry associated with film-induced tourism, the research subjects are limited to the management staff of the film-induced tourism industry. A total of 1,200 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,054 valid questionnaires were collected, with a recovery rate of 87.8%. The collected questionnaires were randomly divided into two equal sets (527 questionnaires in each set): one dataset is used for exploratory factor analysis and the other is used for confirmatory factor analysis. The demographic characteristics of the sample population are shown in Table 1 . From Table 1 we can see, most of the responders are males (accounting for 68.9%), in the age groups of 25–35 and 36–45 (the total number of the two age groups accounting for 65.3%) and have a bachelor’s degree (accounting for 54.9%). 28% of the responders are tourism area managers; 34.7% of the responders are government department managers; and 37.3% of the responders are general staff. And the demographic characteristics of the responders generally follow the demographic distribution of the entire population in the area, indicating a good representativeness of the data and makes it an effective data source.

Sample basic information.

We draw on the mature scales used in previous studies for reference, and the initial scale was formed after corresponding modifications according to research topic. Then, two scholars who have been engaged in film-induced tourism and sustainable development were invited for analysis and discussion, and the scale was modified and improved. We use 5-level Likert scale to measure all variables, with 1 indicating “very unimportant” and 5 indicating “very important.” The specific measurement items and reliability are shown in the appendix. In addition, SPSS 26.0 was used for validity test, and KMO was 0.906 (>0.8). The results show that the scale has good reliability and validity, indicating that there is internal consistency among the variables ( Table 2 ).

Measurement items and reliability.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed ( Table 3 ) that P<0.01, and the Composite Reliability of all variables was 0.622–0.865, so that the polymerization validity and the convergence validity is good. AVE was in a reasonable range. Therefore, the results of CFA all meet the standard, and all dimensions have good convergence validity.

Confirmatory factor analysis.

FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI, film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry; IRBV, integrated resource-based view; IEBV, integrated ecology-based view; ISBV, integrated space-based view; ES, economic sustainability; HEC, human–environment coordination; HC, harmonious coexistence.

Correlation Analysis

Through the correlation coefficient test, it can be seen that the values below the diagonal are, respectively, the correlation coefficients between potential variables ( Table 4 ). Each potential variable has different connotations in theory, and each variable has relatively high correlation and good discriminant validity.

Correlation analysis.

FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI, film-induced tourism industry, DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry. **p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

Goodness of Fit of the Structural Model

Based on the previous research results, the path relationship diagram between potential variables and observed variables has been built, the goodness of fit of the model to be verified have been tested from AMOS 26.0. The main fitting indicators all meet the ideal standard, that is, the model fitting effect is ideal.

Hypothesis Testing

In order to further test the hypothesis proposed above, we run a structural equation model with mediation (see Figure 1 ). The results are shown in Table 5 . There is a correlation between film-induced culture and film-induced industry ( r  = 0.720). Film-induced culture has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.590, C R  = 7.495, p  < 0.01); The film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.441, C R  = 6.326, p  < 0.01), then hypothesis 1a, 1b, 1c are supported. The degree of integration has a significant positive impact on film-induced tourism ( r  = 0.836, C R  = 11.817, p  < 0.01), so hypothesis 2a, 2B, and 2C are also supported.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is fpsyg-13-875084-g001.jpg

Structural equation model. FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI: film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry; IRBV, integrated resource-based view; IEBV, integrated ecology-based view; ISBV, integrated space-based view; ES, economic sustainability; HEC, human–environment coordination; HC, harmonious coexistence.

Goodness of fit of the structural model.

Empirical Testing of Mediating Effects

In order to test the reliability of the path hypothesis, we further use Bootstrapping to calculate the mediating effect of culture and tourism integration. Bootstrapping test performs 3,000 samplings and selects a 95% confidence interval, then the final test results are shown in Table 6 , so both hypothesis H3a and H3b are assumed to hold ( Table 7 ).

Hypothesis testing.

FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI, film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

Empirical testing of mediating effects.

FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI, film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry.

Given previous scholars’ studies on film-induced tourism ( Ringle, 2018 ; Marafa et al., 2020 ), we assume that cultural tourism will significantly affect the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development. More specifically, we believe that the organic integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry will have a significant impact on economic, social, and ecological sustainable development, which are the three dimensions of sustainable development. The results generally support our hypothesis that we view culture and tourism as a systematic whole rather than separate them and that culture and tourism integration is not simply “culture + tourism” or “tourism + culture.” We also confirm that the degree of integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry plays an important mediate role in the sustainable development of film-induced tourism. Although culture and tourism seem to be combined with each other in contemporary society, they have not developed the sustainable development dynamics of products and services innovation, nor developed a systematic operation mechanism. Consequently, the integration of culture and tourism is not to mechanically copy the two independent elements, but the key lies in the functional replacement and format innovation, complementary advantages, and the optimal combination of industrial elements.

Managerial Implications

As culture and tourism are two huge and complex systems, both have relatively mature management operation mechanism, working path, industrial rules, and industry norms, while they are currently characterized by high growth and rapid development ( Richards, 2018 ; McKercher, 2020 ). Therefore, in constructing the path of the integration of culture and tourism to promote sustainable development, the resource characteristics, functional differences, and technological advantages of film-induced culture and tourism industry should be fully considered in theory, and their similarity and relevance should be taken into account. In practice, we should not only make full use of the location conditions, resource endowments, and social and economic systems of film-induced culture and tourism destinations, but constantly identify the intersection points of products, industries, and enterprises according to the changes in market demand, and construct diversified industrial integration modes according to local conditions to determine develop directions in the integration of resources, technology, market and products, and administrative management.

From the perspective of tourism industry, support the development of organization forms that meet the needs of film-induced tourism development. The integration of industry should finally be reflected in the integration of organizations. Although the fundamental dynamics for the development of film-induced tourism is the development of market demand ( Connell, 2005 ), it needs enterprises to be discovered and satisfied to find business opportunities. We suggest relevant departments relax film-induced tourism business licensing, strengthen information services, support enterprises to explore new business areas, support various cooperation, and even merger and acquisitions. From the perspective of film-induced culture, enrich the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism. Film-induced tourism should not be equated with general implanted advertising or simply build film-induced bases, but should dig deeply into the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism, closely focus on the core theme of film/television works, and deeply develop “post-film products” related to tourism derivative industry, and then systematically integrate them to form a cross-industry and compound film-induced tourism industry chain ( Young and Young, 2008 ; Fan and Yu, 2021 ). In order to promote sustainable development, we further suppose that we should strengthen the research on film-induced tourism and explore the development mode and regulations of film-induced tourism.

Limitations and Future Directions

This study provides some enlightenments on the theoretical exploration and practical management of film-induced tourism. Inevitably, there are several limitations, which can be addressed in future studies. First, the verification of the hypotheses is through the empirical analysis of collected questionnaires, lacking the support of actual cases. This can be improved by case analysis in follow-up studies. Second, the degree of integration between culture and industry is measured and defined by their characteristics in this study. However, the integration may also be affected by their underlying relationship. Their spatial production characteristics are also valuable for further investigation. In summary, in this research, the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism has been investigated, and conclusions have been drawn. This topic, however, still requires in-depth follow-up investigations from the research community.

Data Availability Statement

Ethics statement.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.

Author Contributions

KY contributed to the empirical work, the analysis of the results, and the writing of the first draft. JinZ and JiaZ supported the total work of the KY. YZ and CX contributed to overall quality and supervision the part of literature organization and empirical work. RT contributed to developing research hypotheses and revised the overall manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This project was supported by the General Project of the National Social Science Fund of China: Tracking Research on the Development of Western Urban Politics (20BZZ055), General project of Humanities and Social Sciences General Research Program of the Ministry of Education: Research on the Generation Mechanism and Resolution Path of “Fragmentation Phenomenon” of Urban Social Governance (19YJA810002), Social Science Planning General Project in Jiangxi Province (No. 21XW06), Jiangxi Province Culture and Art Science Planning General Project (No. YG2021087), and Jiangxi Province Colleges Humanities and Social Science Project (No. GL20214).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, film tourism: sustained economic contributions to destinations.

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes

ISSN : 1755-4217

Article publication date: 12 April 2011

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential of film‐induced tourism to provide sustained economic contribution to destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of a literature review and identifies the economic contribution made by film‐induced tourism.

It is observed that film‐induced tourism only provides a sustained economic contribution to destinations in exceptional circumstances.

Practical implications

Destinations need to incorporate film as a functional component of their management. Managers need to focus on the subtle roles film plays in destination awareness, motivation, and image and expectation formation. This focus is best deployed in connecting film audiences with the destination, and tourist experiences available.

Originality/value

The paper questions the emphasis placed on film as a tourism‐inducing agent and at same time, illustrates that film has a subtle influence and this requires further emphasis by destination managers.

  • Consumer behaviour

Glen Croy, W. (2011), "Film tourism: sustained economic contributions to destinations", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes , Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 159-164. https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211111123014

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Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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    At the turn of the century, the tourism industry underwent a transformation triggered by the sweeping processes of globalization. The traditional forms of tourism were supplemented and expanded by the introduction of new postmodern tourist forms, bringing new and different tourist offers to the marketplace. One of these new forms is the film tourism, a rapidly growing and important new tourism ...

  12. Film induced tourism: a systematic literature review

    The "film-induced tourism" concept serves for the study of tourism visits made to a destination or attraction resulting from its featuring in cinema films, television series or promotional ...

  13. Local Aspects and Impacts of Film-induced Tourism

    The romantic tourist likes to gaze on places which have been constructed and reinforced by TV and film in solitude and privacy, establishing a semi-spiritual relationship with the place (Urry 1990, ref. 37) Movie tourism for reasons of pilgrimage, nostalgia, and escape (Riley and Van Doren, ref. 14) Movie tourism elevates the consumer beyond ...

  14. (PDF) Film-induced tourism

    Film-induced tourism is currently a rich area for theoretical exploration (Hudson et al, 2006, Bolan et al, 2006, Bolan 2005, Beeton 2004). The research question is: To identify the critical success factors to build upon film-induced tourism in Ireland. ... the popularity and the cultural characteristics of such media representations (Beeton ...

  15. PDF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FILM PRODUCTS TO INDUCE TOURISM

    They defined film-induced tourism as a "tourist visit to destination or attraction as a result of the destination featured on the cinema screen, video or television". Iwashita (2003)

  16. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FILM PRODUCTS TO INDUCE TOURISM

    paper aims to discuss the six of the characteristics of film products namely on location, off. location, storyline, celebrity, film genres and film festivals. Definition of Film Products to Induce ...

  17. Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the ...

    The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism …

  18. Film-Induced Tourism

    Aspects of Tourism is an innovative, multifaceted series, which comprises authoritative reference handbooks on global tourism regions, research vol-umes, texts and monographs. It is designed to provide readers with the latest thinking on tourism worldwide and push back the frontiers of tourism knowledge.

  19. Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the Perspective

    The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism, and the research on the dynamic mechanism of ...

  20. Film tourism: sustained economic contributions to destinations

    - The purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential of film‐induced tourism to provide sustained economic contribution to destinations., - The paper takes the form of a literature review and identifies the economic contribution made by film‐induced tourism., - It is observed that film‐induced tourism only provides a sustained ...

  21. PDF Movie Induced Tourism: a New Tourism Phenomenon

    at play a major role in choosing a destination.In his paper, titled Understanding the Film-Induced Tourist, 2004, Macionis explains this phenomenon. through the "push and pull" theory (Dann 1977). Pull factors are those which attract a tourist to a given destination (e.g., sunshine, beach, sea), whereas push factors are the ones predisposing ...

  22. An Exploratory Study of Movie‐Induced Tourism: A Case of the Movie The

    The purpose of this study was to explore a relationship between a movie and its effect on the local tourism where the movie was filmed. In this study, specifically, the movie The Sound of Music was chosen to examine the role that the movie played in attracting people to Salzburg, Austria that was used as a backdrop for the movie.

  23. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FILM PRODUCTS TO INDUCE TOURISM

    Film products to induce tourism is a new phenomenon for tourists to visit a destination that inspired by films and television. For example; film The Beach (Thailand), Tomb Raider (Cambodia), Entrapment (Malaysia), Lord of The Rings trilogy (New Zealand), Harry Potter trilogy (UK) and others. Many of this destination has turned into a popular tourist attraction. However, film products to induce ...