Virtual House Plan & Home Tour Videos

Country-style ranch home with wide front porch and VR video

Featured House Plan with VR Video

This charming country farmhouse house plan ...

ranch style homes virtual tour

An increasingly popular request from our clients is videos of our house plans. These can include:

  • 360 degrees of the exterior using a drone flyover
  • Video walk-through of the interior
  • Even a photo-inspired video showing the home's layout from room to room.

More recently, we've begun to offer virtual reality house plan videos (VR) of select houses on an exclusive basis. These VR videos provide a truly enhanced walk-through experience like no other!

An Interactive Experience

By utilizing interactive tours of both the inside and outside of your future home, you get to experience the layout before you move in. You can feel the livability of your house, discover the flow from room to room, and feel comfortable with your decision without ever breaking ground. We're happy to be at the interactive forefront of home building and strive to offer the best customer experience possible.

We will continue adding house plan videos to this collection as we receive them . If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to contact us . We appreciate your input and suggestions.

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2-Bedroom, 1448 Sq Ft Small House - Plan #142-1265 - Front Exterior

Plan: #142-1265

3-Bedroom, 2454 Sq Ft Ranch Home - Plan #142-1242 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1242

4-Bedroom, 2373 Sq Ft European Home - Plan #142-1204 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1204

3-Bedroom, 1751 Sq Ft Ranch House Plan - 141-1166 - Front Exterior

Plan: #141-1166

7-Bedroom, 8628 Sq Ft Luxury House - Plan #106-1325 - Front Exterior

Plan: #106-1325

3-Bedroom, 2597 Sq Ft Country Home - Plan #142-1168 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1168

2-Bedroom, 800 Sq Ft Country House - Plan #141-1078 - Front Exterior

Plan: #141-1078

5-Bedroom, 7587 Sq Ft Mediterranean House - Plan #195-1216 - Front Exterior

Plan: #195-1216

3-Bedroom, 1320 Sq Ft Ranch House - Plan #123-1102 - Front Exterior

Plan: #123-1102

4-Bedroom, 2686 Sq Ft Country Home - Plan #142-1169 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1169

4-Bedroom, 2392 Sq Ft Barn Style House - Plan #142-1269 - Front Exterior

Plan: #142-1269

3-Bedroom, 1817 Sq Ft Ranch Home - Plan #141-1320 - Main Exterior

Plan: #141-1320

5-Bedroom, 6690 Sq Ft Country Home - Plan #165-1077 - Main Exterior

Plan: #165-1077

3-Bedroom, 1640 Sq Ft Country Home Plan - 141-1243 - Main Exterior

Plan: #141-1243

3-Bedroom, 2781 Sq Ft Contemporary Home Plan - 142-1411 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1411

2-4 Bedroom, 2605-5205 Sq Ft Ranch House - Plan #194-1010 - Front Exterior

Plan: #194-1010

5-Bedroom, 3217 Sq Ft Contemporary Home - Plan #202-1021 - Main Exterior

Plan: #202-1021

3-Bedroom, 2589 Sq Ft Farmhouse Home - Plan #142-1238 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1238

2-Bedroom, 1064 Sq Ft Country Home Plan - 142-1417 - Main Exterior

Plan: #142-1417

3-Bedroom, 2041 Sq Ft Modern Farmhouse Home Plan - 141-1321 - Main Exterior

Plan: #141-1321

3-Bedroom, 1450 Sq Ft Cottage House Plan - 142-1123 - Front Exterior

Plan: #142-1123

Watch the video introduction.

ranch style homes virtual tour

From the design book

Breakthroughs in vr technology make it affordable and accessible for house plans.

TPC author Brian Toolan

Imagine Walking Through Your Future Home – Before Its Built – Right Now!   Perhaps you first saw it in a sci-fi movie like The Matrix – and were blown away by the concept. While much of it may be far-fetched, the idea of plugging into a virtual environment and having a rich and almost lifelike experience is getting closer thanks to advances in virtual reality headsets and software. Unfortunately, the most technologically advanced commercial VR systems can cost thousands of dollars, and even the highest end on the

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TAKE A HERITAGE HOMES VIRTUAL TOUR

Look around and enjoy an interactive 3d experience..

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM RANCH – 2900 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

THe Harris – 2500 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

THE BRODIE 4  – 10′ Ceilings

ranch style homes virtual tour

THE HARPER (55HM) – 2731 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM – 2100 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM – 2136 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE (345ML)

ranch style homes virtual tour

HARRIS IV – 3000 sqft

Heritage Homes

Coming soon

ranch style homes virtual tour

COBBLESTONE – 10′ Ceilings

ranch style homes virtual tour

THE RICHMOND

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 3 Bedroom

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM (6Hall) – 1910 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM HOME – In-Law Suite

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE III – 3150 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

MODEL HOME   Harris III – 2351 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

DALTON – 10′ Ceilings

ranch style homes virtual tour

GREYSTONE -w/Screened Porch

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM (3BML) – 1775 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

DALTON (14BML) – 2048 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 2600 sqft. – 10′ Ceilings

ranch style homes virtual tour

OXFORD REVISED – 2300 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

ORMONDE – 1640 sqft

AMSTERDAM  – 1875 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 4 Bedroom – 2500 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 4 Bedroom- 2500 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM – 2200 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM RANCH  – 2050 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

GLEASON II- 2100 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

GLEASON REVISED – 2400 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH – 1750 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

TWO STORY GREATROOM (334ML) – 3300 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

COBBLESTONE  II  – 3650 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM RANCH  – 2200 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

DALTON (136FS) – 2048 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

SAVANNAH (47HM) – 2410 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 3100 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM RANCH -2350 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH (308TB) – 1800 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE (WB25) – 2875 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

FOWLER (309TB) – 2600 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

ORMONDE EXPANDED 1894 sqft

The Dalton

DALTON (BML12) – 2048 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE II – 2949 sqft with finished basement

ranch style homes virtual tour

GLEASON  (HM37) – 2035 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH (TB306) – 1650 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CABOT III (BML5) – 2200 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

PINE VALLEY – 3092 sqft          Two Story

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE (ARB44) – 2775 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH (VP) – 2000sqft

Lot 4 Waterbridge

AMSTERDAM  – 1610sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM HOME  (26SRS) – 3870 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRANDYWINE  IV (346ML)      2650 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH – 1900sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

RANCH (36WB) – 1650 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

HARRIS  (23 WBT) – 2700 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

PINECREST (WBT3) – 2776 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CABOT (424Center) – 2400sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

COURTYARD AMSTERDAM  – 2308sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE III (21SRS) – 3080 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE (336ML) – 3000 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

CUSTOM RANCH – 2400sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

AMSTERDAM (GC34)           2400 sqft

Lot 42 Arbutus

BRODIE (42ARB) – 2950

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 2875 sqft – Lot 35 TB

ranch style homes virtual tour

THE HAHN RANCH – 1700 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

ORMONDE – 1805 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 2500 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

SAVANNAH – 2365 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

BRODIE – 3 Bdrm – 2300 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

GLEASON – 2055 sqft

ranch style homes virtual tour

GLEASON V – 2052 sqft

Virtual Tours

We invite you to dig deeper and explore some of our past projects with these virtual tours. From guided tour videos to walk-through tours that you control, we are excited to give you a taste of the magic that happens.

1,665 SqFt Condo Virtual Tour

Open, airy, and full of storage, the Willow stand-alone condo design has it all. Have the family over for the holidays or enjoy some me-time in your large master suite. The second bedroom can host guests, be an office, or even a craft room.

The Willow is part of The Preserve at Sawyer Creek , our stand-alone condo community on Oshkosh's west side. Learn more about The Preserve including sites and Ready Homes that are available.

1,665 SqFt Condo Design Tour

Here's what this stand-alone condo looked like during the design phase. The final Virtual Tour, located above, is strikingly similar to the original design!

1,584 SqFt Condo Virtual Tour

The Aster design features 2 bedrooms and 2 bathrooms and this stand-alone condo is the perfect mix of maintenance-free living with the privacy of your own home. Vaulted ceilings, 9' kitchen island, gas fireplace, screened porch overlooking the nature preserve, and so much more!

The Aster is part of The Preserve at Sawyer Creek , our stand-alone condo community on Oshkosh's west side. Learn more about The Preserve including sites and Ready Homes that are available.

1,584 SqFt Condo Design Tour

Before construction began we created this design tour video to pick out the interior finishes that would look great and fit the overall style of this condo.

1,443 SqFt Condo Virtual Tour

Spend more time enjoying life and less time maintaining your home with this brand-new stand-alone condo. Our Flora home design puts all the space where you value it most. Day-to-day life is made easy with features like the laundry room pass-through, while the 12’ kitchen island makes hosting family for the holidays better than ever!

The Flora is part of The Preserve at Sawyer Creek , our stand-alone condo community on Oshkosh's west side. Learn more about The Preserve including sites and Ready Homes that are available.

1,443 SqFt Condo Design Tour

Here's what the Flora stand-alone condo looked like during our design phase. The final Virtual Tour is located above and it's always exciting to see how it call came together from beginning to the end!

2,124 SqFt Two-Story

A previous Parade Home, this two-story features high-end finishes and tons of space to expand including a future bonus room over the garage. The main floor has an open-concept layout, large bench area with hooks in the mudroom, and a large kitchen island for entertaining. Upstairs includes the laundry, all 3 bedrooms, and 2 full bathrooms with 2 sinks in each. Average heating and cooling bills on this home are projected to be $38 per month.

This home is located in our family-friendly Casey's Meadow subdivision. Contact us for details on available lots or Ready Homes.

2,000 SqFt Two-Story

The "before" and "after" virtual tour all in one! Enjoy guiding yourself through this two-story home. If you look down and click the "VR" or "Camera" button, you will switch from the design virtual tour which was before construction, and the final virtual tour which was after construction. This is a unique opportunity to see how a home design comes together and looks at the end. The accuracy our interior designers have is incredible to see!

1,686 SqFt Ranch

We begin with the "before" virtual tour video. A twist on the typical 3 bedroom, 2 bathroom ranch style home. This design features a two-stall garage, gas fireplace, walk-in pantry, and an egress window in the basement.

Our expert architect and interior design team created this modern craftsman house that has light brown laminate plank flooring, black interior doors with white trim, white shaker cabinets throughout and tall cathedral ceilings that reach 12 feet. It is truly a sight to see!

To top it off, this home is highly energy efficient and is projected to have less than $30 per month average heating and cooling bills.

The "after" shows you how similar the final product was to our design virtual tour video. Here you can click the arrows to guide yourself on the tour of this completed home.

Designed and built in our Casey's Meadow neighborhood, this home style has been a popular choice for a long time. Don't wait too long to find the perfect lot for your family in Casey's Meadow .

1,743 SqFt Ranch

This tailored home offers 3 bedrooms and 2 full baths and was built in the convenient Casey's Meadow Subdivision .

The split ranch design with large kitchen including a 9 foot island is perfect for entertaining. The stained and painted woodwork with tasteful lighting selections create a warm and bright environment.

This home has been independently inspected and verified for efficiency and comfort with an average projected monthly heating and cooling bill of just $37 at the time of completion!

1,966 SqFt Two-Story

This spacious two-story home offers 4 bedrooms, 3 full bathrooms, and a huge ready-to-finish bonus room.

Waterproof core vinyl plank flooring, second floor laundry, dovetail drawers, and soft-close cabinetry add convenience and durability at every turn.

As always, we partnered with eFree Advisors to guarantee the latest money-saving and energy efficiency building strategies were applied.

1,568 SqFt Ranch

Stylish living and maximum efficiency aplenty with this 3 bedroom, 2 bathroom, open-concept home.

A custom design by our architects features a gas fireplace, 3-car garage for additional storage, and walk-in closets throughout.

Our partnership with eFree Advisors allowed us to optimize our budget and get the most energy efficiency for the dollar spent. In fact, this home tested out to be 37% more efficient than building to code!

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ranch style homes virtual tour

  • Open Models
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  • The Alyssa II

The Alyssa III

The brittany.

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  • The Brooklyn II
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The Emerson

The genevieve.

  • View All Subdivisions
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  • 3D Virtual Tours

The Kenzie Kitchen

See What’s Behind the Walls and Down the Halls

View 3d virtual tours.

When building a new home and selecting that perfect floor plan, you have to envision your family in that space, and how you would make it all your own. At Demlang Builders, we go the extra step to ensure you get full insight into our homes and are now featuring Matterport 3D virtual tours of our models. Now you can virtually visit our models from the comfort of your own home. But don’t forget that there is nothing like seeing the real thing, so we encourage you to also come visit our models, open Saturday & Sunday from noon-4 pm.

Some options and selections shown in photography, floor plans, videos, and 3D tours may not be included in the base price of our models and may reflect product options available in previous model homes.

3D virtual tour of Demlang Home Builders model The Kenzie

The Kenize - Redford Hills

The Jenna Matterport

The Jenna - Stone Ridge of Merton

The Brooklyn II Matterport

The Brooklyn II - Sanctuary at Good Hope

3D virtual tour of Demlang Home Builders model the Harper from the 2021 Parade of Homes

The Harper - Swan View Farms

The Harper at Aero Park

The Harper - Aero Park

The Alysa III Matterport

The Dakota - Harvest Hills Lot 24

The Darkota at Windrush

The Dakota - Windrush Lot 38

The Alyssa II at Kohler Matterport

The Alyssa II - Kohler Ridge

The Alyssa II at Woodridge Estates

The Alyssa II - Woodridge Estates

The Brooklyn Ryanwood Matterport

The Brooklyn - Ryanwood Manor Lot 10

The Brooklyn LCV Lot 107

The Brooklyn - Lake Country Village Lot 107

The Brooklyn LCV Lot 60

The Brooklyn - Lake Country Village Lot 60

The Brooklyn Spencers Pass West Matterport

The Brooklyn - Spencer's Pass West

The Dawson

Construction in Progress

Demlang Design Gallery Matterport

Design Gallery Showroom

“We’re very pleased with your staff. Their professionalism, patience, and attention were impressive. Demlang Wisconsin Home Builders will be on the top of our list if we ever decide to build again.”

“We’ve had many wonderful compliments. Looking back, we should have chosen Demlang Builders the first time we built 12 years ago. We have more than the quality we expected.”

“We thoroughly enjoyed the entire building process and experienced none of the horror stories we heard from other people. We love our house and are very pleased with the quality of even the smallest detail. Thank you all for the excellent job!!”

“Why would anyone want to build a home in Northern Wisconsin with a builder from Waukesha County? You wouldn’t want to unless it was with Rod Demlang of Demlang Builders. Rod and his wife Colleen were the perfect pair for us through the planning process. The rest of the staff only complimented them. They listened, explained options, and helped design a home we were all excited about. Would we recommend Demlang home builders … in a heartbeat!!”

“We’ve recently moved into our first build and Demlang home. They made the process as painless as possible and were incredibly helpful and kind throughout. The quality of work in a Demlang home is far superior than any other builder out there. Not only do you get more for your money with Demlang, the quality is always their top priority. You will not regret going with Demlang for your builder.”

“The entire team at Demlang is fantastic to work with and truly understands the building process! If I were to build again they would be on the top of my list!”

“We built The Brooklyn and cannot say enough good things about our experience with Demlang! Colleen, Martha, and Jason were always just a phone call away. We especially liked all the subcontractors they used. They all were amazing and spoke VERY highly of working for Demlang. If you’re contemplating building a house and need a builder, definitely check out Demlang. I would highly recommend them without a doubt! Beautiful homes, beautiful quality, great people to work with!”

“ After sitting on our lot for 4 years, my wife and I decided to build with Demlang and so happy we did!  We love our new home and everything it gives us.  It was great working with Rod, Colleen, Ryan, and the rest of the Demlang team.”

“ Demlang Builders helped make our dream home a reality. Communication was good and use of BuilderTrend was very helpful to see what was happening and when.  It was also nice to be able to make all of our selections in the Demlang office vs. running around and visiting numerous places.”

Ready to build? Contact our team to get started.

Model Homes Open to the Public with MBA Social Distancing Guidelines

Your health and safety remain a top priority to Demlang Builders.

We are constantly monitoring recommendations by national and local health agencies, as well as best practices outlined by local and state trade groups.

Our Model Homes are currently open to the public in accordance with the Metropolitan Builders Association social distancing guidelines. For additional details regarding these guidelines, please review the full list of open model requirements .

If you do not feel comfortable visiting an open model during normal business hours, we invite you to enjoy our new “Virtual/In-person” experience featuring online 3D tours , virtual meeting opportunities, and private in-person visits.

Thank you for your understanding and support.

From The Demlang Team

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3D Interactive Virtual Tours

Explore wherever you want.

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lakeside Vacation Timber Home

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Modern Lake Home 3811AL - Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lodge

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Grandview - Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Modern Mountain 2664AL - Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

Completely Custom 17,000 SqFt Luxury Estate

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Cowboy Ranch 2761AR - Ranch

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Mountain Chalet 2215AL - Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lake Cabin 1342AL - Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Ultimate Cabin 1569AL

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Maintenance Free Texas Timber 3361AL

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Rustic Lodge 2245AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

Ultra Custom Timber Home on a Private Airstrip

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Clearwater 1750AR Ranch with Sports Themed Man Cave

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Timber Lake 2779AR-UCT Ranch - Ultra Custom Timber

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Log and Timber Home 2124AL

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Timber Ranch 2286AR-UCT

ranch style homes virtual tour

Custom Exposed Beam Timber Frame Home

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lodge 2838AL

ranch style homes virtual tour

Completely Custom Timber Frame Bunk House

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Big Timber 2333AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - South Carolina 2310AR

ranch style homes virtual tour

Completely Custom Northern Wisconsin Log Home

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Myrtle Beach (CP-0514)

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Timber Pub 1859AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Country's Best 3361AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Hybrid Timber Frame Log Home - North Carolina 1861AR Floorplan

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Eagle Prow 5 Ranch

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lofted Log 1969AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

Completely Custom Ranch Log Home

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Ranch Version of the Ski Home Prow 1418AR Ranch

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Lakehouse 3352AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Double Eagle 2427AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Clearwater 1750AR Ranch - Flipped Floor Plan

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Pineview 1644AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Pineview 1799AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - "Brookside" Lofted Floor Plan

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Riverview 2038AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Eagle Prow V 1842AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

A Client Modified - Farmhouse Log Cabin

Golden eagle log and timber homes corporate headquarters.

ranch style homes virtual tour

Custom Double Eagle Deluxe 2668AL Lofted

ranch style homes virtual tour

Electoral history

  • Premiership
  • First Cabinet
  • Second Cabinet
  • Prime Minister
  • Political groups
  • Munich 2007
  • Crimea 2014
  • Valdai 2014
  • Federal Assembly 2020
  • Donetsk and Luhansk 2022
  • Ukraine 2022
  • Moscow 2022

Political career

Public image.

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin [c] [d] (born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer who is the President of Russia . Putin has held continuous positions as president or prime minister since 1999: [e] as prime minister from 1999 to 2000 and from 2008 to 2012, and as president from 2000 to 2008 and since 2012. [f] [7] He is the longest-serving Russian or Soviet leader since Joseph Stalin .

Putin worked as a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel before resigning in 1991 to begin a political career in Saint Petersburg . In 1996, he moved to Moscow to join the administration of President Boris Yeltsin . He briefly served as the director of the Federal Security Service (FSB) and then as secretary of the Security Council of Russia before being appointed prime minister in August 1999. Following Yeltsin's resignation, Putin became acting president and, in less than four months, was elected to his first term as president. He was subsequently reelected in 2004 . Due to constitutional limitations of two consecutive presidential terms, Putin served as prime minister again from 2008 to 2012 under Dmitry Medvedev . He returned to the presidency in 2012, following an election marked by allegations of fraud and protests , and was reelected in 2018 . In April 2021, after a referendum , he signed into law constitutional amendments that included one allowing him to run for reelection twice more, potentially extending his presidency to 2036. [8] [9]

During Putin's initial presidential tenure, the Russian economy grew on average by seven percent per year, [10] driven by economic reforms and a fivefold increase in the price of oil and gas. [11] [12] Additionally, Putin led Russia in a conflict against Chechen separatists , reestablishing federal control over the region. [13] [14] While serving as prime minister under Medvedev, he oversaw a military conflict with Georgia and enacted military and police reforms . In his third presidential term, Russia annexed Crimea and supported a war in eastern Ukraine through several military incursions, resulting in international sanctions and a financial crisis in Russia . He also ordered a military intervention in Syria to support his ally Bashar al-Assad during the Syrian civil war , ultimately securing permanent naval bases in the Eastern Mediterranean . [15] [16] [17] In his fourth presidential term, he launched a significant invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, which prompted international condemnation and led to expanded sanctions . In September 2022, he announced a partial mobilization and forcibly annexed four Ukrainian oblasts into Russia . In March 2023, the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Putin for war crimes [18] related to his alleged criminal responsibility for illegal child abductions during the war . [19]

Under Putin's rule , Russian political system has been transformed into an authoritarian dictatorship . [20] His rule has been marked by endemic corruption and widespread human rights violations , including the imprisonment and suppression of political opponents , intimidation and censorship of independent media in Russia , and a lack of free and fair elections . [21] [22] [23] Putin's Russia has consistently received low scores on Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index , The Economist Democracy Index , Freedom House 's Freedom in the World index, and the Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index .

Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), [24] the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin (1911–1999) and Maria Ivanovna Putina ( née Shelomova; 1911–1998). His grandfather, Spiridon Putin (1879–1965), was a personal cook to Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin . [25] [26] Putin's birth was preceded by the deaths of two brothers: Albert, born in the 1930s, died in infancy, and Viktor, born in 1940, died of diphtheria and starvation in 1942 during the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi Germany 's forces in World War II . [27] [28]

ranch style homes virtual tour

Putin's mother was a factory worker, and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy , serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. During the early stage of Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union , his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD . [29] [30] [31] Later, he was transferred to the regular army and was severely wounded in 1942. [32] Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, and his maternal uncles disappeared on the Eastern Front during World War II. [33]

On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No. 193 at Baskov Lane, near his home. He was one of a few in his class of about 45 pupils who were not yet members of the Young Pioneer organization. At the age of 12, he began to practise sambo and judo. [34] In his free time, he enjoyed reading the works of Karl Marx , Friedrich Engels , and Lenin. [35] Putin studied German at Saint Petersburg High School 281 and speaks both German and English as additional languages. [36]

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Putin studied law at the Leningrad State University named after Andrei Zhdanov (now Saint Petersburg State University ) in 1970 and graduated in 1975. [37] His thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". [38] While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU); he remained a member until it ceased to exist in 1991. [39] Putin met Anatoly Sobchak , an assistant professor who taught business law , [g] and who later became the co-author of the Russian constitution and of corruption schemes in France . Putin was influential in Sobchak's career in Saint Petersburg, and Sobchak was influential in Putin's career in Moscow. [40]

In 1997, he received a degree in economics ( kandidat ekonomicheskikh nauk ) at the Saint Petersburg Mining University for a thesis on energy dependencies and their instrumentalisation in foreign policy. [41] [42] His supervisor was Vladimir Litvinenko , who in 2000 and again in 2004 managed his presidential election campaigns in St Petersburg. [43] Danchenko and Gaddy [ who? ] consider Putin to be a plagiarist according to Western standards. One book from which he copied entire paragraphs is the Russian-language edition of King and Cleland 's Strategic Planning and Policy (1978). [43] Balzer wrote on the Putin thesis and Russian energy policy and concludes along with Olcott that "The primacy of the Russian state in the country’s energy sector is non-negotiable", and cites the insistence on majority Russian ownership of any joint-venture, particularly since BASF signed the Gazprom Nord Stream - Yuzhno-Russkoye deal in 2004 with a 49–51 structure, as opposed to the older 50–50 split of British Petroleum 's TNK-BP project. [44]

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In 1975, Putin joined the KGB and trained at the 401st KGB School in Okhta, Leningrad. [45] [46] After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate ( counterintelligence ), before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate , where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad. [45] [47] [48] In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute . [49] [50] [51]

Multiple reports have suggested Putin was sent by the KGB to New Zealand, corroborated through New Zealand eyewitness accounts and government records. This has never been confirmed by Russian security services. Former Waitākere City mayor Bob Harvey and former prime minister David Lange alleged that Putin served in Wellington and Auckland . [52] He allegedly worked for some time undercover as a Bata shoe salesman in central Wellington. [52] [53] [54]

From 1985 to 1990, he served in Dresden , East Germany , [55] using a cover identity as a translator. [56] While posted in Dresden, Putin worked as one of the KGB's liaison officers to the Stasi secret police and was reportedly promoted to lieutenant colonel . According to the official Kremlin presidential site, the East German communist regime commended Putin with a bronze medal for "faithful service to the National People's Army ". Putin has publicly conveyed delight over his activities in Dresden, once recounting his confrontations with anti-communist protestors of 1989 who attempted the occupation of Stasi buildings in the city. [57]

"Putin and his colleagues were reduced mainly to collecting press clippings , thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB", Russian-American Masha Gessen wrote in their 2012 biography of Putin. [56] His work was also downplayed by former Stasi spy chief Markus Wolf and Putin's former KGB colleague Vladimir Usoltsev. Journalist Catherine Belton wrote in 2020 that this downplaying was actually cover for Putin's involvement in KGB coordination and support for the terrorist Red Army Faction , whose members frequently hid in East Germany with the support of the Stasi. Dresden was preferred as a "marginal" town with only a small presence of Western intelligence services. [58] According to an anonymous source who claimed to be a former RAF member, at one of these meetings in Dresden the militants presented Putin with a list of weapons that were later delivered to the RAF in West Germany. Klaus Zuchold, who claimed to be recruited by Putin, said that Putin handled a neo-Nazi , Rainer Sonntag, and attempted to recruit an author of a study on poisons. [58] Putin reportedly met Germans to be recruited for wireless communications affairs together with an interpreter. He was involved in wireless communications technologies in South-East Asia due to trips of German engineers, recruited by him, there and to the West. [48] However, a 2023 investigation by Der Spiegel reported that the anonymous source had never been an RAF member and "considered a notorious fabulist" with "several previous convictions, including for making false statements." [59]

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According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he saved the files of the Soviet Cultural Center (House of Friendship) and of the KGB villa in Dresden for the official authorities of the would-be united Germany to prevent demonstrators, including KGB and Stasi agents, from obtaining and destroying them. He then supposedly burnt only the KGB files, in a few hours, but saved the archives of the Soviet Cultural Center for the German authorities. Nothing is told about the selection criteria during this burning; for example, concerning Stasi files or about files of other agencies of the German Democratic Republic or of the USSR. He explained that many documents were left to Germany only because the furnace burst but many documents of the KGB villa were sent to Moscow. [61]

After the collapse of the Communist East German government , Putin was to resign from active KGB service because of suspicions aroused regarding his loyalty during demonstrations in Dresden and earlier, though the KGB and the Soviet Army still operated in eastern Germany. He returned to Leningrad in early 1990 as a member of the "active reserves", where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University , reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov , while working on his doctoral dissertation. [48]

There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, and renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak , soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad . [62] Putin claims that he resigned with the rank of lieutenant colonel on 20 August 1991, [62] on the second day of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt against Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev . [63] Putin said: "As soon as the coup began, I immediately decided which side I was on", although he noted that the choice was hard because he had spent the best part of his life with "the organs". [64]

1990–1996: Saint Petersburg administration

In May 1990, Putin was appointed as an advisor on international affairs to the mayor of Leningrad Anatoly Sobchak . In a 2017 interview with Oliver Stone , Putin said that he resigned from the KGB in 1991, following the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev, as he did not agree with what had happened and did not want to be part of the intelligence in the new administration. [65] According to Putin's statements in 2018 and 2021, he may have worked as a private taxi driver to earn extra money, or considered such a job. [66] [67]

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On 28 June 1991, he became head of the Committee for External Relations of the Mayor's Office , with responsibility for promoting international relations and foreign investments [69] and registering business ventures. Within a year, Putin was investigated by the city legislative council led by Marina Salye . It was concluded that he had understated prices and permitted the export of metals valued at $93 million in exchange for foreign food aid that never arrived. [70] [37] Despite the investigators' recommendation that Putin be fired, Putin remained head of the Committee for External Relations until 1996. [71] [72] From 1994 to 1996, he held several other political and governmental positions in Saint Petersburg.

In March 1994, Putin was appointed as first deputy chairman of the Government of Saint Petersburg . In May 1995, he organized the Saint Petersburg branch of the pro-government Our Home – Russia political party, the liberal party of power founded by Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin . In 1995, he managed the legislative election campaign for that party, and from 1995 through June 1997, he was the leader of its Saint Petersburg branch.

1996–1999: Early Moscow career

In June 1996, Sobchak lost his bid for re-election in Saint Petersburg, and Putin, who had led his election campaign, resigned from his positions in the city administration. He moved to Moscow and was appointed as deputy chief of the Presidential Property Management Department headed by Pavel Borodin . He occupied this position until March 1997. He was responsible for the foreign property of the state and organized the transfer of the former assets of the Soviet Union and the CPSU to the Russian Federation. [40]

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On 26 March 1997, President Boris Yeltsin appointed Putin deputy chief of the Presidential Staff , a post which he retained until May 1998, and chief of the Main Control Directorate of the Presidential Property Management Department (until June 1998). His predecessor in this position was Alexei Kudrin and his successor was Nikolai Patrushev , both future prominent politicians and Putin's associates. [40] On 3 April 1997, Putin was promoted to 1st class Active State Councillor of the Russian Federation – the highest federal state civilian service rank . [73]

On 27 June 1997, at the Saint Petersburg Mining Institute , guided by rector Vladimir Litvinenko , Putin defended his Candidate of Science dissertation in economics, titled Strategic Planning of the Reproduction of the Mineral Resource Base of a Region under Conditions of the Formation of Market Relations . [74] This exemplified the custom in Russia whereby a young rising official would write a scholarly work in mid-career. [75] Putin's thesis was plagiarized . [76] Fellows at the Brookings Institution found that 15 pages were copied from an American textbook. [77] [78]

On 25 May 1998, Putin was appointed First Deputy Chief of the Presidential Staff for the regions, in succession to Viktoriya Mitina . On 15 July, he was appointed head of the commission for the preparation of agreements on the delimitation of the power of the regions and head of the federal center attached to the president, replacing Sergey Shakhray . After Putin's appointment, the commission completed no such agreements, although during Shakhray's term as the head of the Commission 46 such agreements had been signed. [79] Later, after becoming president, Putin cancelled all 46 agreements. [40] On 25 July 1998, Yeltsin appointed Putin director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the primary intelligence and security organization of the Russian Federation and the successor to the KGB. [80] In 1999, Putin described communism as "a blind alley, far away from the mainstream of civilization". [81]

1999: First premiership

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On 9 August 1999, Putin was appointed one of three first deputy prime ministers, and later on that day, was appointed acting prime minister of the Government of the Russian Federation by President Yeltsin. [82] Yeltsin also announced that he wanted to see Putin as his successor. Later on that same day, Putin agreed to run for the presidency. [83]

On 16 August, the State Duma approved his appointment as prime minister with 233 votes in favor (vs. 84 against, 17 abstained), [84] while a simple majority of 226 was required, making him Russia's fifth prime minister in fewer than eighteen months. On his appointment, few expected Putin, virtually unknown to the general public, to last any longer than his predecessors. He was initially regarded as a Yeltsin loyalist; like other prime ministers of Boris Yeltsin, Putin did not choose ministers himself, his cabinet was determined by the presidential administration. [85]

Yeltsin's main opponents and would-be successors were already campaigning to replace the ailing president, and they fought hard to prevent Putin's emergence as a potential successor. Following the September 1999 Russian apartment bombings and the invasion of Dagestan by mujahideen , including the former KGB agents, based in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria , Putin's law-and-order image and unrelenting approach to the Second Chechen War soon combined to raise his popularity and allowed him to overtake his rivals.

While not formally associated with any party, Putin pledged his support to the newly formed Unity Party , [86] which won the second largest percentage of the popular vote (23.3%) in the December 1999 Duma elections , and in turn supported Putin.

1999–2000: Acting presidency

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned and, according to the Constitution of Russia , Putin became Acting President of the Russian Federation . On assuming this role, Putin went on a previously scheduled visit to Russian troops in Chechnya. [87]

The first presidential decree that Putin signed on 31 December 1999 was titled "On guarantees for the former president of the Russian Federation and the members of his family". [88] [89] This ensured that "corruption charges against the outgoing President and his relatives" would not be pursued. [90] This was most notably targeted at the Mabetex bribery case in which Yeltsin's family members were involved. On 30 August 2000, a criminal investigation (number 18/238278-95) in which Putin himself, [91] [92] as a member of the Saint Petersburg city government, was one of the suspects, was dropped.

On 30 December 2000, yet another case against the prosecutor general was dropped "for lack of evidence", despite thousands of documents having been forwarded by Swiss prosecutors. [93] On 12 February 2001, Putin signed a similar federal law which replaced the decree of 1999. A case regarding Putin's alleged corruption in metal exports from 1992 was brought back by Marina Salye , but she was silenced and forced to leave Saint Petersburg. [94]

While his opponents had been preparing for an election in June 2000, Yeltsin's resignation resulted in the presidential elections being held on 26 March 2000; Putin won in the first round with 53% of the vote. [95] [96]

2000–2004: First presidential term

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The inauguration of President Putin occurred on 7 May 2000. He appointed the minister of finance , Mikhail Kasyanov , as prime minister. [97] The first major challenge to Putin's popularity came in August 2000, when he was criticized for the alleged mishandling of the Kursk submarine disaster . [98] That criticism was largely because it took several days for Putin to return from vacation, and several more before he visited the scene. [98]

Between 2000 and 2004, Putin set about the reconstruction of the impoverished condition of the country, apparently winning a power-struggle with the Russian oligarchs , reaching a 'grand bargain' with them. This bargain allowed the oligarchs to maintain most of their powers, in exchange for their explicit support for – and alignment with – Putin's government. [99] [100]

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The Moscow theater hostage crisis occurred in October 2002. Many in the Russian press and in the international media warned that the deaths of 130 hostages in the special forces' rescue operation during the crisis would severely damage President Putin's popularity. However, shortly after the siege had ended, the Russian president enjoyed record public approval ratings – 83% of Russians declared themselves satisfied with Putin and his handling of the siege. [101]

In 2003, a referendum was held in Chechnya , adopting a new constitution which declares that the Republic of Chechnya is a part of Russia; on the other hand, the region did acquire autonomy. [102] Chechnya has been gradually stabilized with the establishment of the Parliamentary elections and a Regional Government. [103] [104] Throughout the Second Chechen War , Russia severely disabled the Chechen rebel movement; however, sporadic attacks by rebels continued to occur throughout the northern Caucasus. [105]

2004–2008: Second presidential term

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On 14 March 2004, Putin was elected to the presidency for a second term, receiving 71% of the vote. [107] The Beslan school hostage crisis took place on 1–3 September 2004; more than 330 people died, including 186 children. [108]

The near 10-year period prior to the rise of Putin after the dissolution of Soviet rule was a time of upheaval in Russia. [109] In a 2005 Kremlin speech, Putin characterized the collapse of the Soviet Union as the "greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the Twentieth Century." [110] Putin elaborated, "Moreover, the epidemic of disintegration infected Russia itself." [111] The country's cradle-to-grave social safety net was gone and life expectancy declined in the period preceding Putin's rule. [112] In 2005, the National Priority Projects were launched to improve Russia's health care , education , housing , and agriculture . [113] [114]

The continued criminal prosecution of the wealthiest man in Russia at the time, president of Yukos oil and gas company Mikhail Khodorkovsky , for fraud and tax evasion was seen by the international press as a retaliation for Khodorkovsky's donations to both liberal and communist opponents of the Kremlin. [115] Khodorkovsky was arrested, Yukos was bankrupted, and the company's assets were auctioned at below-market value, with the largest share acquired by the state company Rosneft . [116] The fate of Yukos was seen as a sign of a broader shift of Russia towards a system of state capitalism . [117] [118] This was underscored in July 2014, when shareholders of Yukos were awarded $50 billion in compensation by the Permanent Arbitration Court in The Hague . [119]

On 7 October 2006, Anna Politkovskaya , a journalist who exposed corruption in the Russian army and its conduct in Chechnya , was shot in the lobby of her apartment building, on Putin's birthday. The death of Politkovskaya triggered international criticism, with accusations that Putin had failed to protect the country's new independent media. [120] [121] Putin himself said that her death caused the government more problems than her writings. [122]

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In January 2007, Putin met with German Chancellor Angela Merkel at his Black Sea residence in Sochi , two weeks after Russia switched off oil supplies to Germany. Putin brought his black Labrador Konni in front of Merkel, who has a noted phobia of dogs and looked visibly uncomfortable in its presence, adding "I'm sure it will behave itself", causing a furor among the German press corps. [123] [124] When asked about the incident in a January 2016 interview with Bild , Putin claimed he was not aware of her phobia, adding "I wanted to make her happy. When I found out that she did not like dogs, I of course apologized." [125] Merkel later told a group of reporters "I understand why he has to do this – to prove he's a man. He's afraid of his own weakness. Russia has nothing, no successful politics or economy. All they have is this." [124]

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In a speech in February 2007 at the Munich Security Conference , Putin complained about the feeling of insecurity engendered by the dominant position in geopolitics of the United States, and observed that a former NATO official had made rhetorical promises not to expand into new countries in Eastern Europe.

On 14 July 2007, Putin announced that Russia would suspend implementation of its Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe obligations, effective after 150 days, [126] [127] and suspend its ratification of the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty , which treaty was shunned by NATO members abeyant Russian withdrawal from Transnistria and the Republic of Georgia . Moscow continued to participate in the joint consultative group, because it hoped that dialogue could lead to the creation of an effective, new conventional arms control regime in Europe. [128] Russia did specify steps that NATO could take to end the suspension. "These include [NATO] members cutting their arms allotments and further restricting temporary weapons deployments on each NATO member's territory. Russia also want[ed] constraints eliminated on how many forces it can deploy in its southern and northern flanks. Moreover, it is pressing NATO members to ratify a 1999 updated version of the accord, known as the Adapted CFE Treaty , and demanding that the four alliance members outside the original treaty, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Slovenia, join it." [127]

In early 2007, " Dissenters' Marches " were organized by the opposition group The Other Russia , [129] led by former chess champion Garry Kasparov and national-Bolshevist leader Eduard Limonov . Following prior warnings, demonstrations in several Russian cities were met by police action, which included interfering with the travel of the protesters and the arrests of as many as 150 people who attempted to break through police lines. [130]

On 12 September 2007, Putin dissolved the government upon the request of Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov . Fradkov commented that it was to give the President a "free hand" in the run-up to the parliamentary election. Viktor Zubkov was appointed the new prime minister. [131]

On 19 September 2007 Putin's nuclear-capable bombers commenced exercises near the US, for the first time since the downfall of the USSR. [132]

In December 2007, United Russia  – the governing party that supports the policies of Putin – won 64.24% of the popular vote in their run for State Duma according to election preliminary results. [133] United Russia's victory in the December 2007 elections was seen by many as an indication of strong popular support of the then Russian leadership and its policies. [134] [135]

On 11 February 2008 while Putin addressed the 15th anniversary party of Gazprom , its employees threatened Ukraine with a stoppage of flow. [132]

On 4 April 2008 at the NATO Bucharest summit , invitee Putin told George W. Bush and other conference delegates: "We view the appearance of a powerful military bloc on our border as a direct threat to the security of our nation. The claim that this process is not directed against Russia will not suffice. National security is not based on promises." [132]

2008–2012: Second premiership

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Putin was barred from a third consecutive term by the Constitution . First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev was elected his successor. In a power-switching operation on 8 May 2008 , only a day after handing the presidency to Medvedev, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia , maintaining his political dominance. [136]

Putin has said that overcoming the consequences of the world economic crisis was one of the two main achievements of his second premiership. [114] The other was stabilizing the size of Russia's population between 2008 and 2011 following a long period of demographic collapse that began in the 1990s. [114] It was during this premiership that the 2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute occurred, and Putin controlled the Gazprom chess-board, according to Andriy Kobolyev , who was then an advisor to the CEO of the Ukrainian Naftogaz utility. Putin observed at a German trade show in 2010 that if his hosts did not want Russia's natural gas nor nuclear power they could always heat with wood, and for that they would need to log Siberia . [132]

At the United Russia Congress in Moscow on 24 September 2011, Medvedev officially proposed that Putin stand for the presidency in 2012, an offer Putin accepted. Given United Russia's near-total dominance of Russian politics, many observers believed that Putin was assured of a third term. The move was expected to see Medvedev stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December, with a goal of becoming prime minister at the end of his presidential term. [137]

After the parliamentary elections on 4 December 2011, tens of thousands of Russians engaged in protests against alleged electoral fraud, the largest protests in Putin's time. Protesters criticized Putin and United Russia and demanded annulment of the election results. [138] Those protests sparked the fear of a colour revolution in society. [139] Putin allegedly organized a number of paramilitary groups loyal to himself and to the United Russia party in the period between 2005 and 2012. [140]

2012–2018: Third presidential term

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On 24 September 2011, while speaking at the United Russia party congress, Medvedev announced that he would recommend the party nominate Putin as its presidential candidate. He also revealed that the two men had long ago cut a deal to allow Putin to run for president in 2012. [141] This switch was termed by many in the media as "Rokirovka", the Russian term for the chess move " castling ". [142]

On 4 March 2012, Putin won the 2012 Russian presidential election in the first round, with 63.6% of the vote, despite widespread accusations of vote-rigging. [143] [144] [145] Opposition groups accused Putin and the United Russia party of fraud. [146] While efforts to make the elections transparent were publicized, including the usage of webcams in polling stations, the vote was criticized by the Russian opposition and by international observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for procedural irregularities. [147]

Anti-Putin protests took place during and directly after the presidential campaign. The most notorious protest was the Pussy Riot performance on 21 February, and subsequent trial. [148] An estimated 8,000–20,000 protesters gathered in Moscow on 6 May, [149] [150] when eighty people were injured in confrontations with police, [151] and 450 were arrested, with another 120 arrests taking place the following day. [152] A counter-protest of Putin supporters occurred which culminated in a gathering of an estimated 130,000 supporters at the Luzhniki Stadium , Russia's largest stadium. [153] Some of the attendees stated that they had been paid to come, were forced to come by their employers, or were misled into believing that they were going to attend a folk festival instead. [154] [155] [156] The rally is considered to be the largest in support of Putin to date. [157]

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Putin's presidency was inaugurated in the Kremlin on 7 May 2012. [158] On his first day as president, Putin issued 14 presidential decrees , which are sometimes called the "May Decrees" by the media, including a lengthy one stating wide-ranging goals for the Russian economy . Other decrees concerned education , housing, skilled labor training, relations with the European Union , the defense industry , inter-ethnic relations, and other policy areas dealt with in Putin's program articles issued during the presidential campaign. [159]

In 2012 and 2013, Putin and the United Russia party backed stricter legislation against the LGBT community, in Saint Petersburg , Archangelsk , and Novosibirsk ; a law called the Russian gay propaganda law , that is against "homosexual propaganda" (which prohibits such symbols as the rainbow flag , [160] [161] as well as published works containing homosexual content) was adopted by the State Duma in June 2013. [162] [163] Responding to international concerns about Russia's legislation, Putin asked critics to note that the law was a "ban on the propaganda of pedophilia and homosexuality" and he stated that homosexual visitors to the 2014 Winter Olympics should "leave the children in peace" but denied there was any "professional, career or social discrimination" against homosexuals in Russia. [164]

In June 2013, Putin attended a televised rally of the All-Russia People's Front where he was elected head of the movement, [165] which was set up in 2011. [166] According to journalist Steve Rosenberg , the movement is intended to "reconnect the Kremlin to the Russian people" and one day, if necessary, replace the increasingly unpopular United Russia party that currently backs Putin. [167]

Annexation of Crimea

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In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory. After the Euromaidan protests and the fall of Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych , Russian soldiers without insignias took control of strategic positions and infrastructure within the Ukrainian territory of Crimea. Russia then annexed Crimea and Sevastopol after a referendum in which, according to official results, Crimeans voted to join the Russian Federation. [168] [169] [170] Subsequently, demonstrations against Ukrainian Rada legislative actions by pro-Russian groups in the Donbas area of Ukraine escalated into the Russo-Ukrainian War between the Ukrainian government and the Russia-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics . In August 2014, [171] Russian military vehicles crossed the border in several locations of Donetsk Oblast. [172] [173] [174] The incursion by the Russian military was seen by Ukrainian authorities as responsible for the defeat of Ukrainian forces in early September. [175] [176]

In October 2014, Putin addressed Russian security concerns in Sochi at the Valdai International Discussion Club .

In November 2014, the Ukrainian military reported intensive movement of troops and equipment from Russia into the separatist-controlled parts of eastern Ukraine. [177] The Associated Press reported 80 unmarked military vehicles on the move in rebel-controlled areas. [178] An OSCE Special Monitoring Mission observed convoys of heavy weapons and tanks in DPR -controlled territory without insignia. [179] OSCE monitors further stated that they observed vehicles transporting ammunition and soldiers' dead bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border under the guise of humanitarian-aid convoys. [180]

As of early August 2015, the OSCE observed over 21 such vehicles marked with the Russian military code for soldiers killed in action. [181] According to The Moscow Times , Russia has tried to intimidate and silence human-rights workers discussing Russian soldiers' deaths in the conflict. [182] The OSCE repeatedly reported that its observers were denied access to the areas controlled by "combined Russian-separatist forces". [183]

In October 2015, The Washington Post reported that Russia had redeployed some of its elite units from Ukraine to Syria in recent weeks to support Syrian President Bashar al-Assad . [184] In December 2015, Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine. [185]

The Moscow Times quoted pro-Russian academic Andrei Tsygankov as saying that many members of the international community assumed that Putin's annexation of Crimea had initiated a completely new kind of Russian foreign policy [186] [187] and that his foreign policy had shifted "from state-driven foreign policy" to taking an offensive stance to recreate the Soviet Union. In July 2015, he opined that this policy shift could be understood as Putin trying to defend nations in Russia's sphere of influence from "encroaching western power". [188]

Intervention in Syria

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On 30 September 2015, President Putin authorized Russian military intervention in the Syrian civil war , following a formal request by the Syrian government for military help against rebel and jihadist groups. [189]

The Russian military activities consisted of air strikes, cruise missile strikes and the use of front line advisors and Russian special forces against militant groups opposed to the Syrian government , including the Syrian opposition , as well as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), Tahrir al-Sham , Ahrar al-Sham , and the Army of Conquest . [190] [191] After Putin's announcement on 14 March 2016 that the mission he had set for the Russian military in Syria had been "largely accomplished" and ordered the withdrawal of the "main part" of the Russian forces from Syria, [192] Russian forces deployed in Syria continued to actively operate in support of the Syrian government. [193]

Russia's interference in the 2016 US election

In January 2017, a U.S. intelligence community assessment expressed high confidence that Putin personally ordered an influence campaign, initially to denigrate Hillary Clinton and to harm her electoral chances and potential presidency, then later developing "a clear preference" for Donald Trump . [194] Trump consistently denied any Russian interference in the U.S. election, [195] [196] [197] as did Putin in December 2016, [198] March 2017, [199] June 2017, [200] [201] [202] and July 2017. [203]

Putin later stated that interference was "theoretically possible" and could have been perpetrated by "patriotically minded" Russian hackers, [204] and on another occasion claimed "not even Russians, but Ukrainians, Tatars or Jews, but with Russian citizenship" might have been responsible. [205] In July 2018, The New York Times reported that the CIA had long nurtured a Russian source who eventually rose to a position close to Putin, allowing the source to pass key information in 2016 about Putin's direct involvement. [206] Putin continued similar attempts in the 2020 U.S. presidential election . [207]

2018–present: Fourth presidential term

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Putin won the 2018 Russian presidential election with more than 76% of the vote. [208] His fourth term began on 7 May 2018, [209] and will last until 2024. [210] On the same day, Putin invited Dmitry Medvedev to form a new government . [211] On 15 May 2018, Putin took part in the opening of the movement along the highway section of the Crimean bridge . [212] On 18 May 2018, Putin signed decrees on the composition of the new Government. [213] On 25 May 2018, Putin announced that he would not run for president in 2024, justifying this in compliance with the Russian Constitution. [214] On 14 June 2018, Putin opened the 21st FIFA World Cup , which took place in Russia for the first time. On 18 October 2018, Putin said Russians will 'go to Heaven as martyrs' in the event of a nuclear war as he would only use nuclear weapons in retaliation. [215] In September 2019, Putin's administration interfered with the results of Russia's nationwide regional elections and manipulated it by eliminating all candidates in the opposition. The event that was aimed at contributing to the ruling party, United Russia 's victory, also contributed to inciting mass protests for democracy, leading to large-scale arrests and cases of police brutality. [216]

On 15 January 2020, Medvedev and his entire government resigned after Putin's 2020 Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly . Putin suggested major constitutional amendments that could extend his political power after presidency. [217] [218] At the same time, on behalf of Putin, he continued to exercise his powers until the formation of a new government. [219] Putin suggested that Medvedev take the newly created post of deputy chairman of the Security Council . [220]

On the same day, Putin nominated Mikhail Mishustin , head of the country's Federal Tax Service for the post of prime minister. The next day, he was confirmed by the State Duma to the post, [221] [222] and appointed prime minister by Putin's decree. [223] This was the first time ever that a prime minister was confirmed without any votes against. On 21 January 2020, Mishustin presented to Putin a draft structure of his Cabinet . On the same day, the president signed a decree on the structure of the Cabinet and appointed the proposed ministers. [224] [225] [226]

COVID-19 pandemic

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On 15 March 2020, Putin instructed to form a Working Group of the State Council to counteract the spread of coronavirus. Putin appointed Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin as the head of the group. [227]

On 22 March 2020, after a phone call with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte , Putin arranged the Russian army to send military medics, special disinfection vehicles and other medical equipment to Italy, which was the European country hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic . [228] Putin began working remotely from his office at Novo-Ogaryovo . According to Dmitry Peskov , Putin passed daily tests for coronavirus, and his health was not in danger. [229] [230]

On 25 March, President Putin announced in a televised address to the nation that the 22 April constitutional referendum would be postponed due to the coronavirus. [231] He added that the next week would be a nationwide paid holiday and urged Russians to stay at home. [232] [233] Putin also announced a list of measures of social protection , support for small and medium-sized enterprises , and changes in fiscal policy . [234] Putin announced the following measures for microenterprises, small- and medium-sized businesses: deferring tax payments (except Russia's value-added tax ) for the next six months, cutting the size of social security contributions in half, deferring social security contributions, deferring loan repayments for the next six months, a six-month moratorium on fines, debt collection, and creditors' applications for bankruptcy of debtor enterprises. [235] [236]

On 2 April 2020, Putin again issued an address in which he announced prolongation of the non-working time until 30 April. [237] Putin likened Russia's fight against COVID-19 to Russia's battles with invading Pecheneg and Cuman steppe nomads in the 10th and 11th centuries. [238] In a 24 to 27 April Levada poll, 48% of Russian respondents said that they disapproved of Putin's handling of the coronavirus pandemic, [239] and his strict isolation and lack of leadership during the crisis was widely commented as sign of losing his "strongman" image. [240] [241]

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In June 2021, Putin said he was fully vaccinated against the disease with the Sputnik V vaccine , emphasising that while vaccinations should be voluntary, making them mandatory in some professions would slow down the spread of COVID-19. [243] In September, Putin entered self-isolation after people in his inner circle tested positive for the disease. [244]

According to a report by the Wall Street Journal , Putin's inner circle of advisors shrank during the COVID-19 lockdown to a small number of hawkish advisers. [245]

Constitutional referendum and amendments

Putin signed an executive order on 3 July 2020 to officially insert amendments into the Russian Constitution, allowing him to run for two additional six-year terms. These amendments took effect on 4 July 2020. [246]

Since 11 July, protests have been held in the Khabarovsk Krai in Russia's Far East in support of arrested regional governor Sergei Furgal . [247] The 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests have become increasingly anti-Putin. [248] [249] A July 2020 Levada poll found that 45% of surveyed Russians supported the protests. [250]

On 22 December 2020, Putin signed a bill giving lifetime prosecutorial immunity to Russian ex-presidents. [251] [252]

Iran trade deal

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Putin met Iran President Ebrahim Raisi in January 2022 to lay the groundwork for a 20-year deal between the two nations. [253]

2021–2022 Russo-Ukrainian crisis

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In July 2021, Putin published an essay titled On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians , in which he states that Belarusians, Ukrainians and Russians should be in one All-Russian nation as a part of the Russian world and are "one people" whom "forces that have always sought to undermine our unity" wanted to "divide and rule". [254] The essay denies the existence of Ukraine as an independent nation. [255] [256]

On 30 November 2021, Putin stated that an enlargement of NATO in Ukraine would be a "red line" issue for Russia. [257] [258] [259] The Kremlin repeatedly denied that it had any plans to invade Ukraine, [260] [261] [262] and Putin himself dismissed such fears as "alarmist". [263] On 21 February 2022, Putin signed a decree recognizing the two self proclaimed separatist republics in Donbas as independent states and made an address concerning the events in Ukraine . [264]

Putin was persuaded to invade Ukraine by a small group of his closest associates, especially Nikolai Patrushev , Yury Kovalchuk and Alexander Bortnikov . [265] According to sources close to the Kremlin, most of Putin's advisers and associates opposed the invasion, but Putin overruled them. The invasion of Ukraine had been planned for almost a year. [266]

Full-scale invasion of Ukraine (2022–present)

On 24 February, Putin in a televised address announced a " special military operation " [267] in Ukraine, [268] [269] launching a full-scale invasion of the country. [270] Citing a purpose of " denazification ", he claimed to be doing this to protect people in the predominantly Russian-speaking region of Donbas who, according to Putin, faced "humiliation and genocide" from Ukraine for eight years. [271] Minutes after the speech, he launched a war to gain control of the remainder of the country and overthrow the elected government under the pretext that it was run by Nazis. [272] [273]

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Russia's invasion was met with international condemnation. [274] [275] [276] International sanctions were widely imposed against Russia, including against Putin personally. [277] [278] The invasion also led to numerous calls for Putin to be pursued with war crime charges. [279] [280] [281] [282] The International Criminal Court (ICC) stated that it would investigate the possibility of war crimes in Ukraine since late 2013, [283] and the United States pledged to help the ICC to prosecute Putin and others for war crimes committed during the invasion of Ukraine. [284] In response to these condemnations, Putin put the Strategic Rocket Forces 's nuclear deterrence units on high alert. [285] By early March, U.S. intelligence agencies determined that Putin was "frustrated" by slow progress due to an unexpectedly strong Ukrainian defense. [286]

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On 4 March, Putin signed into law a bill introducing prison sentences of up to 15 years for those who publish "knowingly false information" about the Russian military and its operations, leading to some media outlets in Russia to stop reporting on Ukraine. [287] On 7 March, as a condition for ending the invasion, the Kremlin demanded Ukraine's neutrality , recognition of Crimea as Russian territory, and recognition of the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk as independent states. [288] [289] On 16 March, Putin issued a warning to Russian "traitors" who he said the West wanted to use as a " fifth column " to destroy Russia. [290] [291] Following the invasion of Ukraine in 2022, [292] Russia's long-term demographic crisis deepened due to emigration , lower fertility rates and war-related casualties . [293]

As early as 25 March, the UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights reported that Putin ordered a "kidnapping" policy, whereby Ukrainian nationals who did not cooperate with the Russian takeover of their homeland were victimized by FSB agents. [294] [295] On 28 March, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy said he was "99.9 percent sure" that Putin thought the Ukrainians would welcome the invading forces with "flowers and smiles" while he opened the door to negotiations on the offer that Ukraine would henceforth be a non-aligned state . [296]

On 21 September, Putin announced a partial mobilization , following a successful Ukrainian counteroffensive in Kharkiv and the announcement of annexation referendums in Russian- occupied Ukraine . [297]

On 30 September, Putin signed decrees which annexed Donetsk, Luhansk, Zaporizhzhia and Kherson Oblasts of Ukraine into the Russian Federation. The annexations are not recognized by the international community, and are illegal under international law. [298] On 11 November the same year, Ukraine liberated Kherson . [299]

In December 2022, he said that a war against Ukraine could be a "long process". [300] Hundreds of thousands of people have been killed in the Russo-Ukrainian War since February 2022. [301] [302] In January 2023, Putin cited recognition of Russia's sovereignty over the annexed territories as a condition for peace talks with Ukraine. [303]

On 20–22 March 2023, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Russia and met with Vladimir Putin both in official and unofficial capacity. [304] It was the first international meeting of Vladimir Putin since the International Criminal Court issued a warrant for his arrest. [305]

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In May 2023, South Africa announced that it would grant diplomatic immunity to Vladimir Putin to attend the 15th BRICS Summit in Johannesburg despite the ICC arrest warrant. [306] In July 2023, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa announced that Putin would not attend the summit "by mutual agreement" and would instead send Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov . [307]

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In July 2023, Putin threatened to take "reciprocal action" if Ukraine used US-supplied cluster munitions during a Ukrainian counter-offensive against Russian forces in occupied southeastern Ukraine. [308] On 17 July 2023, Putin withdrew from a deal that allowed Ukraine to export grain across the Black Sea despite a wartime blockade, [309] risking deepening the global food crisis and antagonizing neutral countries in the Global South . [310]

On 27–28 July, Putin hosted the 2023 Russia–Africa Summit in St. Petersburg, [311] which was attended by delegations from more than 40 African countries. [312]

As of August 2023, the total number of Russian and Ukrainian soldiers killed or wounded during the Russian invasion of Ukraine was nearly 500,000. [313]

Putin condemned the 2023 Hamas-led attack on Israel that sparked the Israel–Hamas war and said Israel had a right to defend itself, but also criticized Israel's response and said Israel should not besiege the Gaza Strip in the way Nazi Germany besieged Leningrad . Putin suggested that Russia could be a mediator in the conflict. [314] [315] Putin blamed the war on the United States' failed foreign policy in the Middle East and expressed concern over the suffering of Palestinian children in the Gaza Strip. [316] In a December 2023 call between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Putin, Netanyahu expressed displeasure over Russia's conduct at the United Nations and described its growing ties to Iran as dangerous. [317]

On 22 November 2023, Putin claimed that Russia was always "ready for talks" to end the "tragedy" of the war in Ukraine, and accused the Ukrainian leadership of rejecting peace talks with Russia. [318] However, on 14 December 2023, Putin said "there will only be peace in Ukraine when we achieve our aims", which he said are "de-Nazification, de-militarization and a neutral status" of Ukraine. [319] On 23 December 2023, The New York Times reported that Putin has been signaling through intermediaries since at least September 2022 that "he is open to a ceasefire that freezes the fighting along the current lines." [320]

ICC arrest warrant

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On 17 March 2023, the International Criminal Court issued a warrant for Putin's arrest , [321] [322] [323] [324] alleging that Putin held criminal responsibility in the illegal deportation and transfer of children from Ukraine to Russia during the Russian invasion of Ukraine. [325] [326] [327]

It was the first time that the ICC had issued an arrest warrant for the head of state of one of the five Permanent Members of the United Nations Security Council , [321] (the world's five principal nuclear powers). [328]

The ICC simultaneously issued an arrest warrant for Maria Lvova-Belova , Commissioner for Children's Rights in the Office of the President of the Russian Federation. Both are charged with:

...for their publicized program, since 24 February 2022, of forced deportations of thousands of unaccompanied Ukrainian children to Russia, from areas of eastern Ukraine under Russian control. [321] [323] Russia has maintained that the deportations were humanitarian efforts to protect orphans and other children abandoned in the conflict region. [321]

2023 Wagner rebellion

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On 23 June 2023, the Wagner Group , a Russian paramilitary organization, rebelled against the government of Russia . The revolt arose amidst escalating tensions between the Russian Ministry of Defense and Yevgeny Prigozhin , the leader of Wagner. [329]

Prigozhin portrayed the rebellion as a response to an alleged attack on his forces by the ministry. [330] [331] He dismissed the government's justification for invading Ukraine , [332] blamed Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu for the country's military shortcomings, [333] and accused him of waging the war for the benefit of Russian oligarchs . [334] [335] In a televised address on 24 June, Russian president Vladimir Putin denounced Wagner's actions as treason and pledged to quell the rebellion. [331] [336]

Prigozhin's forces seized control of Rostov-on-Don and the Southern Military District headquarters and advanced towards Moscow in an armored column. [337] Following negotiations with Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko , [338] Prigozhin agreed to stand down [339] and, late on 24 June, began withdrawing from Rostov-on-Don. [340]

On 23 August 2023, exactly two months after the rebellion, Prigozhin was killed along with nine other people when a business jet crashed in Tver Oblast , north of Moscow. [341] Western intelligence reported that the crash was likely caused by an explosion on board, and it is widely suspected that the Russian state were involved. [342]

Domestic policies

Putin's domestic policies, particularly early in his first presidency, were aimed at creating a vertical power structure . On 13 May 2000, he issued a decree organizing the 89 federal subjects of Russia into seven administrative federal districts and appointed a presidential envoy responsible for each of those districts (whose official title is Plenipotentiary Representative). [343]

According to Stephen White , under the presidency of Putin, Russia made it clear that it had no intention of establishing a "second edition" of the American or British political system, but rather a system that was closer to Russia's own traditions and circumstances. [344] Some commentators have described Putin's administration as a " sovereign democracy ". [345] [346] [347] According to the proponents of that description (primarily Vladislav Surkov ), the government's actions and policies ought above all to enjoy popular support within Russia itself and not be directed or influenced from outside the country. [348]

The practice of the system is characterized by Swedish economist Anders Åslund as manual management, commenting: "After Putin resumed the presidency in 2012, his rule is best described as 'manual management' as the Russians like to put it. Putin does whatever he wants, with little consideration to the consequences with one important caveat. During the Russian financial crash of August 1998, Putin learned that financial crises are politically destabilizing and must be avoided at all costs. Therefore, he cares about financial stability." [349]

The period after 2012 saw mass protests against the falsification of elections, censorship and toughening of free assembly laws. In July 2000, according to a law proposed by Putin and approved by the Federal Assembly of Russia , Putin gained the right to dismiss the heads of the 89 federal subjects. In 2004, the direct election of those heads (usually called "governors") by popular vote was replaced with a system whereby they would be nominated by the president and approved or disapproved by regional legislatures. [350] [351]

This was seen by Putin as a necessary move to stop separatist tendencies and get rid of those governors who were connected with organised crime. [352] This and other government actions effected under Putin's presidency have been criticized by many independent Russian media outlets and Western commentators as anti-democratic. [353] [354]

During his first term in office, Putin opposed some of the Yeltsin-era business oligarchs , as well as his political opponents, resulting in the exile or imprisonment of such people as Boris Berezovsky , Vladimir Gusinsky , and Mikhail Khodorkovsky ; other oligarchs such as Roman Abramovich and Arkady Rotenberg are friends and allies with Putin. [355] Putin succeeded in codifying land law and tax law and promulgated new codes on labor, administrative, criminal, commercial and civil procedural law. [356] Under Medvedev's presidency, Putin's government implemented some key reforms in the area of state security, the Russian police reform and the Russian military reform . [357]

Economic, industrial, and energy policies

Sergey Guriyev , when talking about Putin's economic policy, divided it into four distinct periods: the "reform" years of his first term (1999–2003); the "statist" years of his second term (2004 – the first half of 2008); the world economic crisis and recovery (the second half of 2008–2013); and the Russo-Ukrainian War, Russia's growing isolation from the global economy, and stagnation (2014–present). [358]

In 2000, Putin launched the "Programme for the Socio-Economic Development of the Russian Federation for the Period 2000–2010", but it was abandoned in 2008 when it was 30% complete. [359] Fueled by the 2000s commodities boom including record-high oil prices , [11] [12] under the Putin administration from 2000 to 2016, an increase in income in USD terms was 4.5 times. [360] During Putin's first eight years in office, industry grew substantially, as did production, construction, real incomes, credit, and the middle class. [361] [362] A fund for oil revenue allowed Russia to repay Soviet Union's debts by 2005. Russia joined the World Trade Organization in August 2012. [363]

In 2006, Putin launched an industry consolidation programme to bring the main aircraft-producing companies under a single umbrella organization, the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC). [364] [365] In September 2020, the UAC general director announced that the UAC will receive the largest-ever post-Soviet government support package for the aircraft industry in order to pay and renegotiate the debt. [366] [367]

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In 2014, Putin signed a deal to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Power of Siberia , which Putin has called the "world's biggest construction project", was launched in 2019 and is expected to continue for 30 years at an ultimate cost to China of $400bn. [369] The ongoing financial crisis began in the second half of 2014 when the Russian ruble collapsed due to a decline in the price of oil and international sanctions against Russia . These events in turn led to loss of investor confidence and capital flight, though it has also been argued that the sanctions had little to no effect on Russia's economy. [370] [371] [372] In 2014, the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project named Putin their Person of the Year for furthering corruption and organized crime. [373] [374]

According to Meduza , Putin has since 2007 predicted on a number of occasions that Russia will become one of the world's five largest economies. In 2013, he said Russia was one of the five biggest economies in terms of gross domestic product but still lagged behind other countries on indicators such as labour productivity. [375] By the end of 2023, Putin planned to spend almost 40% of public expenditures on defense and security. [376]

Environmental policy

In 2004, Putin signed the Kyoto Protocol treaty designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. [377] However, Russia did not face mandatory cuts, because the Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from 1990 levels and Russia's greenhouse-gas emissions fell well below the 1990 baseline due to a drop in economic output after the breakup of the Soviet Union. [378]

Religious policy

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Putin regularly attends the most important services of the Russian Orthodox Church on the main holy days and has established a good relationship with Patriarchs of the Russian Church, the late Alexy II of Moscow and the current Kirill of Moscow . As president, Putin took an active personal part in promoting the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate , signed 17 May 2007, which restored relations between the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia after the 80-year schism. [379]

Under Putin, the Hasidic Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia became increasingly influential within the Jewish community, partly due to the influence of Federation-supporting businessmen mediated through their alliances with Putin, notably Lev Leviev and Roman Abramovich . [380] [381] According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency , Putin is popular amongst the Russian Jewish community, who see him as a force for stability. Russia's chief rabbi, Berel Lazar , said Putin "paid great attention to the needs of our community and related to us with a deep respect". [382] In 2016, Ronald S. Lauder , the president of the World Jewish Congress , also praised Putin for making Russia "a country where Jews are welcome". [383]

Human rights organizations and religious freedom advocates have criticized the state of religious freedom in Russia. [384] In 2016, Putin oversaw the passage of legislation that prohibited missionary activity in Russia. [384] Nonviolent religious minority groups have been repressed under anti-extremism laws, especially Jehovah's Witnesses . [385]

One of the 2020 amendments to the Constitution of Russia has a constitutional reference to God . [386]

Military development

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The resumption of long-distance flights of Russia's strategic bombers was followed by the announcement by Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov during his meeting with Putin on 5 December 2007, that 11 ships, including the aircraft carrier Kuznetsov , would take part in the first major navy sortie into the Mediterranean since Soviet times. [387] [388]

While from the early 2000s Russia started placing more money into its military and defense industry, it was only in 2008 that full-scale Russian military reform began, aiming to modernize the Russian Armed Forces and make them significantly more effective. The reform was largely carried out by Defense Minister Serdyukov during Medvedev's presidency, under the supervision of both Putin, as the head of government, and Medvedev, as the commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. [ citation needed ]

Key elements of the reform included reducing the armed forces to a strength of one million, reducing the number of officers, centralising officer training from 65 military schools into 10 'systemic' military training centres, creating a professional NCO corps, reducing the size of the central command, introducing more civilian logistics and auxiliary staff, elimination of cadre-strength formations, reorganising the reserves, reorganising the army into a brigade system, and reorganising air forces into an airbase system instead of regiments. [ citation needed ]

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According to the Kremlin, Putin embarked on a build-up of Russia's nuclear capabilities because of U.S. President George W. Bush 's unilateral decision to withdraw from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty . [390] To counter what Putin sees as the United States' goal of undermining Russia's strategic nuclear deterrent, Moscow has embarked on a program to develop new weapons capable of defeating any new American ballistic missile defense or interception system. Some analysts believe that this nuclear strategy under Putin has brought Russia into violation of the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty . [391]

Accordingly, U.S. President Donald Trump announced the U.S. would no longer consider itself bound by the treaty's provisions, raising nuclear tensions between the two powers. [391] This prompted Putin to state that Russia would not launch first in a nuclear conflict but that "an aggressor should know that vengeance is inevitable, that he will be annihilated, and we would be the victims of the aggression. We will go to heaven as martyrs". [392]

Putin has also sought to increase Russian territorial claims in the Arctic and its military presence there. In August 2007, Russian expedition Arktika 2007 , part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial extension claim , planted a flag on the seabed at the North Pole. [393] Both Russian submarines and troops deployed in the Arctic have been increasing. [394] [395]

Human rights policy

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New York City-based NGO Human Rights Watch , in a report entitled Laws of Attrition , authored by Hugh Williamson, the British director of HRW's Europe & Central Asia Division, has claimed that since May 2012, when Putin was reelected as president, Russia has enacted many restrictive laws, started inspections of non-governmental organizations, harassed, intimidated and imprisoned political activists, and started to restrict critics. The new laws include the "foreign agents" law, which is widely regarded as over-broad by including Russian human rights organizations which receive some international grant funding, the treason law, and the assembly law which penalizes many expressions of dissent. [396] [397] Human rights activists have criticized Russia for censoring speech of LGBT activists due to "the gay propaganda law" [398] and increasing violence against LGBT+ people due to the law. [399] [400] [401]

In 2020, Putin signed a law on labelling individuals and organizations receiving funding from abroad as "foreign agents". The law is an expansion of "foreign agent" legislation adopted in 2012. [402] [403]

As of June 2020, per Memorial Human Rights Center, there were 380 political prisoners in Russia, including 63 individuals prosecuted, directly or indirectly, for political activities (including Alexey Navalny) and 245 prosecuted for their involvement with one of the Muslim organizations that are banned in Russia. 78 individuals on the list, i.e., more than 20% of the total, are residents of Crimea. [404] [405] As of December 2022, more than 4,000 people were prosecuted for criticizing the war in Ukraine under Russia's war censorship laws . [406]

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Scott Gehlbach, a professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin–Madison , has claimed that since 1999, Putin has systematically punished journalists who challenge his official point of view. [408] Maria Lipman , an American writing in Foreign Affairs claims, "The crackdown that followed Putin's return to the Kremlin in 2012 extended to the liberal media, which had until then been allowed to operate fairly independently." [409] The Internet has attracted Putin's attention because his critics have tried to use it to challenge his control of information. [410] Marian K. Leighton, who worked for the CIA as a Soviet analyst in the 1980s says, "Having muzzled Russia's print and broadcast media, Putin focused his energies on the Internet." [411]

Robert W. Orttung and Christopher Walker reported that " Reporters Without Borders , for instance, ranked Russia 148 in its 2013 list of 179 countries in terms of freedom of the press. It particularly criticized Russia for the crackdown on the political opposition and the failure of the authorities to vigorously pursue and bring to justice criminals who have murdered journalists. Freedom House ranks Russian media as "not free", indicating that basic safeguards and guarantees for journalists and media enterprises are absent." [412] About two-thirds of Russians use television as their primary source of daily news. [413]

In the early 2000s, Putin and his circle began promoting the idea in Russian media that they are the modern-day version of the 17th-century Romanov tsars who ended Russia's " Time of Troubles ", meaning they claim to be the peacemakers and stabilizers after the fall of the Soviet Union. [414]

Promoting conservatism

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Putin has promoted explicitly conservative policies in social, cultural, and political matters, both at home and abroad. Putin has attacked globalism and neoliberalism and is identified by scholars with Russian conservatism . [415] Putin has promoted new think tanks that bring together like-minded intellectuals and writers. For example, the Izborsky Club, founded in 2012 by the conservative right-wing journalist Alexander Prokhanov , stresses (i) Russian nationalism, (ii) the restoration of Russia's historical greatness, and (iii) systematic opposition to liberal ideas and policies. [416] Vladislav Surkov , a senior government official, has been one of the key economics consultants during Putin's presidency. [417]

In cultural and social affairs Putin has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church . Patriarch Kirill of Moscow , head of the Church, endorsed his election in 2012 stating Putin's terms were like "a miracle of God." [418] Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions... Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state." [419]

Mark Woods, a Baptist Union of Great Britain minister and contributing editor to Christian Today , provides specific examples of how the Church has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine. [420] Some Russian Orthodox believers consider Putin a corrupt and brutal strongman or even a tyrant. Others do not admire him but appreciate that he aggravates their political opponents. Still others appreciate that Putin defends some although not all Orthodox teachings, whether or not he believes in them himself. [421]

On abortion, Putin stated: "In the modern world, the decision is up to the woman herself." [422] This put him at odds with the Russian Orthodox Church . [423] In 2020, he supported efforts to reduce the number of abortions instead of prohibiting it. [424] On 28 November 2023, during a speech to the World Russian People's Council , Putin urged Russian women to have "seven, eight, or even more children" and said "large families must become the norm, a way of life for all of Russia's people". [425]

Putin supported the 2020 Russian constitutional referendum , which passed and defined marriage as a relationship between one man and one woman in the Constitution of Russia . [426] [427] [428]

International sporting events

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In 2007, Putin led a successful effort on behalf of Sochi for the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics , [429] the first Winter Olympic Games to ever be hosted by Russia. In 2008, the city of Kazan won the bid for the 2013 Summer Universiade ; on 2 December 2010, Russia won the right to host the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and 2018 FIFA World Cup , also for the first time in Russian history. In 2013, Putin stated that gay athletes would not face any discrimination at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. [430]

Foreign policy

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Generally, Putin's tenure experiences tensions with the west. [431] [432] Anna Borshchevskaya, in her 2022 book, summarizes Putin main foreign policy objectives as originating in his 30 December 1999 document which appeared on the government's website, "Russia at the Turn of the Millenium". [433] She presents Putin as orienting himself to the plan that "Russia is a country with unique values in danger of losing its unity – which... is a historic Russian fear. This again points to the fundamental issue of Russia's identity issues – and how the state had manipulated these to drive anti-Western security narratives with the aim of eroding the US-led global order... Moreover, a look at Russia's distribution of forces over the years under Putin has been heavily weighted towards the south (Syria, Ukraine, Middle East), another indicator of the Kremlin's threat perceptions." [434] [435]

Leonid Bershidsky analyzed Putin's interview with the Financial Times and concluded, "Putin is an imperialist of the old Soviet school, rather than a nationalist or a racist, and he has cooperated with, and promoted, people who are known to be gay." [436] Putin spoke favorably of artificial intelligence in regards to foreign policy, "Artificial intelligence is the future, not only for Russia, but for all humankind. It comes with colossal opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to predict. Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world." [437]

Putin with Indian Prime Minister Modi in New Delhi

In 2012, Putin wrote an article in Indian newspaper The Hindu , saying: "The Declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step." [438] [439] India remains the largest customer of Russian military equipment, and the two countries share a historically strong strategic and diplomatic relationship . [440] In October 2022, Putin described India and China as "close allies and partners". [441]

Under Putin, Russia has maintained positive relations with the Asian states of SCO and BRICS , which include China, India, Pakistan, and post-Soviet states of Central Asia. [442] [443] In the 21st century, Sino-Russian relations have significantly strengthened bilaterally and economically – the Treaty of Friendship , and the construction of the ESPO oil pipeline and the Power of Siberia gas pipeline formed a "special relationship" between the two great powers . [444]

Putin and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe frequently met each other to discuss the Japan–Russia territorial disputes. Putin also voiced his willingness of constructing a rail bridge between the two countries. [445] Despite numerous meetings, no agreement was signed before Abe's resignation in 2020. [446] [447]

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Putin made three visits to Mongolia and has enjoyed good relations with its neighbor. Putin and his Mongolian counterpart signed a permanent treaty on friendship between the two states in September 2019, further enhancing trade and cultural exchanges. [448] [449] Putin became the first Russian or Soviet leader to visit Indonesia in half a century in 2007, resulting in the signing of an arms deal. [450] In another visit, Putin commented on long-standing ties and friendship between Russia and Indonesia. [451] Russia has also boosted relations with Vietnam after 2011, [452] and with Afghanistan in the 2010s, giving military and economic aid. [453] [454] The relations between Russia and the Philippines received a boost in 2016 as Putin forged closer bilateral ties with his Filipino counterpart, Rodrigo Duterte . [455] [456] Putin has good relations with Malaysia and its then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad . [457] Putin also made the first Russian or Soviet leader to visit North Korea, meeting Kim Jong-il in July 2000, shortly after a visit to South Korea. [458]

Putin criticized violence in Myanmar against Rohingya minorities in 2017. [459] Following the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état , Russia has pledged to boost ties with the Myanmar military regime. [460]

Post-Soviet states

  • Turkmenistan

Under Putin, the Kremlin has consistently stated that Russia has a sphere of influence and "privileged interests" over other Post-Soviet states , which are referred to as the "near abroad" in Russia. It has also been stated that the post-Soviet states are strategically vital to Russian interests . [461] Some Russia experts have compared this concept to the Monroe Doctrine . [462]

A series of so-called colour revolutions in the post-Soviet states , namely the Rose Revolution in Georgia in 2003, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine in 2004 and the Tulip Revolution in Kyrgyzstan in 2005, led to frictions in the relations of those countries with Russia. In December 2004, Putin criticized the Rose and Orange revolutions, saying: "If you have permanent revolutions you risk plunging the post-Soviet space into endless conflict". [463]

Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine joined NATO Russia could contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea . [464] At the summit, he told U.S. President George W. Bush that "Ukraine is not even a state!" while the following year Putin referred to Ukraine as " Little Russia ". [465] Following the Revolution of Dignity in March 2014, the Russian Federation annexed Crimea . [466] [467] [468] According to Putin, this was done because " Crimea has always been and remains an inseparable part of Russia". [469]

After the Russian annexation of Crimea, he said that Ukraine includes "regions of Russia's historic south" and "was created on a whim by the Bolsheviks ". [470] He went on to declare that the February 2014 ousting of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych had been orchestrated by the West as an attempt to weaken Russia. "Our Western partners have crossed a line. They behaved rudely, irresponsibly and unprofessionally," he said, adding that the people who had come to power in Ukraine were "nationalists, neo-Nazis , Russophobes and anti-Semites ". [470]

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In a July 2014 speech during a Russian-supported armed insurgency in Eastern Ukraine , Putin stated he would use Russia's "entire arsenal of available means" up to "operations under international humanitarian law and the right of self-defence" to protect Russian speakers outside Russia. [471] [472] With the attainment of autocephaly by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in December 2018 and subsequent schism of the Russian Orthodox Church from Constantinople, a number of experts came to the conclusion that Putin's policy of forceful engagement in post-Soviet republics significantly backfired on him, leading to a situation where he "annexed Crimea, but lost Ukraine", and provoked a much more cautious approach to Russia among other post-Soviet countries. [473] [474]

In late August 2014, Putin stated: "People who have their own views on history and the history of our country may argue with me, but it seems to me that the Russian and Ukrainian peoples are practically one people". [475] After making a similar statement, in late December 2015 he stated: "the Ukrainian culture , as well as Ukrainian literature , surely has a source of its own". [476] In July 2021, he published a lengthy article On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians [477] revisiting these themes, and saying the formation of a Ukrainian state hostile to Moscow was "comparable in its consequences to the use of weapons of mass destruction against us", [478] [479]  – it was made mandatory reading for military-political training in the Russian Armed Forces. [480]

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In August 2008, Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili attempted to restore control over the breakaway South Ossetia. However, the Georgian military was soon defeated in the resulting 2008 South Ossetia War after regular Russian forces entered South Ossetia and then other parts of Georgia, then also opened a second front in the other Georgian breakaway province of Abkhazia with Abkhazian forces. [481] [482]

Despite existing or past tensions between Russia and most of the post-Soviet states, Putin has followed the policy of Eurasian integration. Putin endorsed the idea of a Eurasian Union in 2011; [483] [484] the concept was proposed by the president of Kazakhstan in 1994. [485] On 18 November 2011, the presidents of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement setting a target of establishing the Eurasian Union by 2015. [486] The Eurasian Union was established on 1 January 2015. [487]

Under Putin, Russia's relations have improved significantly with Uzbekistan, the second largest post-Soviet republic after Ukraine. This was demonstrated in Putin's visit to Tashkent in May 2000, after lukewarm relations under Yeltsin and Islam Karimov who had long distanced itself from Moscow. [488] In another meeting in 2014, Russia agreed to write off Uzbek debt. [489]

A theme of a greater Soviet region, including the former USSR and many of its neighbors or imperial-era states – rather than just post-Soviet Russia – has been consistent in Putin's May Day speeches. [490] [491] [492]

On 22 December 2022, Putin addressed the Security Council in a speech where he did not use the term "Special Military Operation" but instead called the fighting in Ukraine a "war". Anti-Putin activists have called for Putin to be prosecuted for breaking a law passed to stop people calling the Special Military Operation a war. This law carries a penalty of up to 15 years in jail. [493]

On 25 December, he openly declared in a TV interview that the goal of the invasion is "to unite the Russian people." [494]

On 14 December 2023, President Putin held a press conference where he indicated that Russian would only negotiate with Ukraine "when we achieve our objectives". He stated that another mobilization wasn't required as "617,000" Russian soldiers were fighting in Ukraine. [495]

United States, Western Europe, and NATO

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Under Putin, Russia's relationships with NATO and the U.S. have passed through several stages. When he first became president, relations were cautious, but after the 9/11 attacks Putin quickly supported the U.S. in the War on Terror and the opportunity for partnership appeared. [497] According to Stephen F. Cohen , the U.S. "repaid by further expansion of NATO to Russia's borders and by unilateral withdrawal from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty ", [497] but others pointed out the applications from new countries willing to join NATO was driven primarily by Russian's behavior in Chechnya , Transnistria , Abkhazia , Yanayev putsch as well as calls to restore USSR in its previous borders by prominent Russian politicians. [498] [499]

From 2003, when Russia strongly opposed the U.S. when it waged the Iraq War , Putin became ever more distant from the West, and relations steadily deteriorated. According to Russia scholar Stephen F. Cohen , the narrative of the mainstream U.S. media, following that of the White House , became anti-Putin. [497] In an interview with Michael Stürmer , Putin said there were three questions which most concerned Russia and Eastern Europe: namely, the status of Kosovo, the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and American plans to build missile defence sites in Poland and the Czech Republic, and suggested that all three were linked. [500] His view was that concessions by the West on one of the questions might be met with concessions from Russia on another. [500]

One single center of power. One single center of force. One single center of decision making. This is the world of one master, one sovereign. ... Primarily the United States has overstepped its national borders, and in every area.

— Putin criticizing the United States in his Munich Speech , 2007 [501]

In a January 2007 interview, Putin said Russia was in favor of a democratic multipolar world and strengthening the systems of international law . [502] In February 2007, Putin criticized what he called the United States' monopolistic dominance in global relations, and "almost uncontained hyper use of force in international relations". He said the result of it is that "no one feels safe! Because no one can feel that international law is like a stone wall that will protect them. Of course such a policy stimulates an arms race". [503] This came to be known as the Munich Speech , and NATO secretary Jaap de Hoop Scheffer called the speech "disappointing and not helpful." [504]

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The months following Putin's Munich Speech [503] were marked by tension and a surge in rhetoric on both sides of the Atlantic. Both Russian and American officials, however, denied the idea of a new Cold War . [505] Putin publicly opposed plans for the U.S. missile shield in Europe and presented President George W. Bush with a counterproposal on 7 June 2007 which was declined. [506] Russia suspended its participation in the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty on 11 December 2007. [507]

Putin opposed Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, warning that it would destabilize the whole system of international relations. [508] [ better source needed ] He described the recognition of Kosovo's independence by several major world powers as "a terrible precedent, which will de facto blow apart the whole system of international relations, developed not over decades, but over centuries", and that "they have not thought through the results of what they are doing. At the end of the day it is a two-ended stick and the second end will come back and hit them in the face". [509] In March 2014, Putin used Kosovo's declaration of independence as a justification for recognizing the independence of Crimea , citing the so-called " Kosovo independence precedent ". [510] [511]

After the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. in 2001, Putin had good relations with American President George W. Bush , and many western European leaders. His "cooler" and "more business-like" relationship with German chancellor, Angela Merkel is often attributed to Merkel's upbringing in the former DDR , where Putin was stationed as a KGB agent. [512] He had a very friendly and warm relationship with the former Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi ; [513] the two leaders often described their relationship as a close friendship, continuing to organize bilateral meetings even after Berlusconi's resignation in November 2011. [514] When Berlusconi died in 2023, Putin described him as an "extraordinary man" and a "true friend". [515] [516]

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The NATO-led military intervention in Libya in 2011 prompted a widespread wave of criticism from several world leaders, including Putin, who said that the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 is "defective and flawed", adding: "It allows everything. It resembles medieval calls for crusades." [517]

In late 2013, Russian-American relations deteriorated further when the United States canceled a summit for the first time since 1960 after Putin gave asylum to American Edward Snowden , who had leaked massive amounts of classified information from the NSA. [518] [519] In 2014, Russia was suspended from the G8 group as a result of its annexation of Crimea . [520] [521] Putin gave a speech highly critical of the United States, accusing them of destabilizing world order and trying to "reshape the world" to its own benefit. [522] In June 2015, Putin said that Russia has no intention of attacking NATO. [523]

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On 9 November 2016, Putin congratulated Donald Trump on becoming the 45th president of the United States. [525] In December 2016, US intelligence officials (headed by James Clapper ) quoted by CBS News stated that Putin approved the email hacking and cyber attacks during the U.S. election , against the Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton . A spokesman for Putin denied the reports. [526] Putin has repeatedly accused Hillary Clinton, who served as U.S. secretary of state from 2009 to 2013 of interfering in Russia's internal affairs , [527] and in December 2016, Clinton accused Putin of having a personal grudge against her. [528] [529]

With the election of Trump, Putin's favorability in the U.S. increased. A Gallup poll in February 2017 revealed a positive view of Putin among 22% of Americans, the highest since 2003. [530] Putin has stated that U.S.–Russian relations, already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War , [531] have continued to deteriorate after Trump took office in January 2017. [532]

On 18 June 2020, The National Interest published a nine-thousand-word essay by Putin, titled "The Real Lessons of the 75th Anniversary of World War II". [533] In the essay, Putin criticizes the Western historical view of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact as the start of World War II , stating that the Munich Agreement was the beginning. [534]

On 21 February 2023, Putin suspended Russia's participation in the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty with the United States. [535]

On 25 March, President Putin announced the stationing of tactical nuclear weapons in Belarus. Russia would maintain control of the weapons. President Putin told Russian TV: "There is nothing unusual here either. Firstly, the United States has been doing this for decades. They have long deployed their tactical nuclear weapons on the territory of their allied countries." [536]

United Kingdom

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In 2003, relations between Russia and the United Kingdom deteriorated when the United Kingdom granted political asylum to Putin's former patron, oligarch Boris Berezovsky . [537] This deterioration was intensified by allegations that the British were spying and making secret payments to pro-democracy and human rights groups. [538] A survey conducted in the United Kingdom in 2022 found Putin to be among the least popular foreign leaders, with 8% of British respondents holding a positive opinion. [539]

Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

The end of 2006 brought more strained relations in the wake of the death by polonium poisoning in London of former KGB and FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko , who became an MI6 agent in 2003. In 2007, the crisis in relations continued with the expulsion of four Russian envoys over Russia's refusal to extradite former KGB bodyguard Andrei Lugovoi to face charges in the murder. [537] Mirroring the British actions, Russia expelled UK diplomats and took other retaliatory steps. [537]

In 2015, the British Government launched a public inquiry into Litvinenko's death, presided over by Robert Owen , a former British High Court judge. [540] The Owen report, published on 21 January 2016, stated "The FSB operation to kill Mr. Litvinenko was probably approved by Mr Patrushev and also by President Putin." [541] The report outlined some possible motives for the murder, including Litvinenko's public statements and books about the alleged involvement of the FSB in mass murder , and what was "undoubtedly a personal dimension to the antagonism" between Putin and Litvinenko. [542]

Poisoning of Sergei Skripal

On 4 March 2018, former double agent Sergei Skripal was poisoned with a Novichok nerve agent in Salisbury . [543] Ten days later, the British government formally accused the Russian state of attempted murder, a charge which Russia denied. [544] After the UK expelled 23 Russian diplomats (an action which would later be responded to with a Russian expulsion of 23 British diplomats), [545] British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said on 16 March that it was "overwhelmingly likely" Putin had personally ordered the poisoning of Skripal. Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov called the allegation "shocking and unpardonable diplomatic misconduct". [546]

Latin America

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Putin and his successor, Medvedev, enjoyed warm relations with Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. Much of this has been through the sale of military equipment; since 2005, Venezuela has purchased more than $4 billion worth of arms from Russia. [547] In September 2008, Russia sent Tupolev Tu-160 bombers to Venezuela to carry out training flights. [548] In November 2008, both countries held a joint naval exercise in the Caribbean . Earlier in 2000, Putin had re-established stronger ties with Fidel Castro 's Cuba. [549]

"You express the best masculine qualities," Putin told Jair Bolsonaro in 2020. "You look for solutions in all matters, always putting above all the interests of your people, your country, leaving out your own personal issues." Political scientist Oliver Stuenkel noted, "Among Brazil's right-wing populists, Putin is seen as someone who is anti- woke , and that is seen as something that is definitely appealing to Bolsonaro. He is a strongman, and that is very inspiring to Bolsonaro. He would like to be someone who concentrates as much power." [550]

Australia and the South Pacific

In September 2007, Putin visited Indonesia and in doing so became the first Russian leader to visit the country in more than 50 years. [551] In the same month, Putin also attended the APEC meeting held in Sydney, Australia , where he met with Prime Minister John Howard and signed a uranium trade deal for Australia to sell uranium to Russia. This was the first visit by a Russian president to Australia. [552] Putin again visited Australia for 2014 G20 Brisbane summit . The Abbott government denounced Putin's use of military force in Ukraine in 2014 as "bullying" and "utterly unacceptable". [553]

Amid calls to ban Putin from attending the 2014 G20 Summit, Prime Minister Tony Abbott said he would "shirtfront" (challenge) the Russian leader over the shooting down of MH17 by Russian-backed rebels, which had killed 38 Australians. [554] Putin denied responsibility for the killings. [555]

Following Putin's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison said the invasion was "unprovoked, unjust and illegal" and labeled Putin a "thug". [556] New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern denounced Putin as a "bully". [557] Fijian Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama tweeted "Fiji and our fellow Pacific Island Countries have united as nations of peace-loving people to condemn the conflict in Ukraine", while the Solomon Islands UN ambassador called the invasion a "violation of the rule of law". [558]

Middle East and Africa

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On 16 October 2007, Putin visited Iran to participate in the Second Caspian Summit in Tehran , [559] [560] where he met with Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad . [561] [562] This was the first visit of a Soviet or Russian leader [563] to Iran since Joseph Stalin 's participation in the Tehran Conference in 1943, and marked a significant event in Iran–Russia relations . [564] At a press conference after the summit Putin said that "all our ( Caspian ) states have the right to develop their peaceful nuclear programmes without any restrictions". [565]

Putin was quoted as describing Iran as a "partner", [500] though he expressed concerns over the Iranian nuclear programme . [500]

In April 2008, Putin became the first Russian president to visit Libya. [566] Putin condemned the 2011 foreign military intervention in Libya, referring to the UN resolution as "defective and flawed," and added "It allows everything. It resembles medieval calls for crusades." [567] Upon the death of Muammar Gaddafi , Putin called it as "planned murder" by the US, saying: "They showed to the whole world how he (Gaddafi) was killed," and "There was blood all over. Is that what they call a democracy?" [568] [569]

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From 2000 to 2010, Russia sold around $1.5 billion worth of arms to Syria, making Damascus Russia's seventh-largest client. [570] During the Syrian civil war , Russia threatened to veto any sanctions against the Syrian government, [571] and continued to supply arms to its regime.

Putin opposed any foreign intervention in the Syrian civil war. In June 2012, in Paris, he rejected the statement of French president François Hollande who called on Bashar al-Assad to step down. Putin echoed Assad's argument that anti-regime militants were responsible for much of the bloodshed. He also talked about previous NATO interventions and their results, and asked "What is happening in Libya, in Iraq? Did they become safer? Where are they heading? Nobody has an answer". [572]

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On 11 September 2013, The New York Times published an op-ed by Putin urging caution against US intervention in Syria and criticizing American exceptionalism . [574] Putin subsequently helped to arrange for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons . [575] In 2015, he took a stronger pro-Assad stance [576] and mobilized military support for the regime . Some analysts have summarized Putin as being allied with Shiites and Alawites in the Middle East. [577] [578]

In 2017, Putin dispatched Russian PMCs to back the Touadéra regime in the Central African Republic Civil War , gaining a permanent military presence in return. [579] [580] [581] [582] The first Russia-Africa Summit was held in October 2019 in Sochi , Russia, co-hosted by Putin and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi . [583] The meeting was attended by 43 heads of state and government from African countries. [584]

In October 2019, Putin visited the United Arab Emirates, where six agreements were struck with Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed . One of them included shared investments between Russian sovereign wealth fund and the Emirati investment fund Mubadala . The two nations signed deals worth over $1.3bn, in energy, health and advance technology sectors. [585]

On 22 October 2021, Putin highlighted the "unique bond" between Russia and Israel during a meeting with Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett . [586]

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Polls and rankings

The director of the Levada Center stated in 2015 that drawing conclusions from Russian poll results or comparing them to polls in democratic states was irrelevant, as there is no real political competition in Russia, where, unlike in democratic states, Russian voters are not offered any credible alternatives and public opinion is primarily formed by state-controlled media, which promotes those in power and discredits alternative candidates. [587]

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In a June 2007 public opinion survey, Putin's approval rating was 81%, the second-highest of any leader in the world that year. [588] In January 2013, at the time of the 2011–2013 Russian protests , Putin's rating fell to 62%, the lowest since 2000. [589] After EU and U.S. sanctions against Russian officials as a result of the crisis in Ukraine , Putin's approval rating reached 87% in August 2014. [590] In February 2015, based on domestic polling, Putin was ranked the world's most popular politician. [591] In June 2015, Putin's approval rating climbed to 89%, an all-time high. [592] [593] [594] Observers saw Putin's high approval ratings in 2010s as a consequence of improvements in living standards, and Russia's reassertion on the world scene during his presidency. [595] [596] Putin was also highly popular in some non-Western countries, such as Vietnam , where his approval rating was 89% in 2017. [597]

Despite high approval for Putin, public confidence in the Russian economy was low, dropping to levels in 2016 that rivaled the lows in 2009 at the height of the global economic crisis. [598] Putin's performance in reining in corruption is unpopular among Russians. Newsweek reported in 2017 that a poll "indicated that 67% held Putin personally responsible for high-level corruption". [599] Corruption is a significant problem in Russia . [600] [601]

Vladimir Putin approval 1999–2020 (Levada, 2020)

In October 2018, two-thirds of Russians surveyed agreed that "Putin bears full responsibility for the problems of the country" which has been attributed [603] to a decline in a popular belief in " good tsar and bad boyars ", a traditional attitude towards justifying failures at the top of the ruling hierarchy in Russia. [604] In January 2019, the percentage of Russians trusting Putin hit a then-historic low – 33%. [605] In April 2019 Gallup poll showed a record number of Russians, 20%, willing to permanently emigrate from Russia. [606] The decline was even larger in the 17–25 age group, "who find themselves largely disconnected from the country's aging leadership, nostalgic Soviet rhetoric and nepotistic agenda". Putin's approval rating among young Russians was 32% in January 2019. The percentage willing to emigrate permanently in this group was 41%. 60% had favorable views of the US (three times more than in the 55+ age group). [607] Decline in support for the president and government is visible in other polls, such as a rapidly growing readiness to protest against poor living conditions.

In May 2020, amid the COVID crisis, Putin's approval rating was 68%, when respondents were presented a list of names (closed question), [608] and 27% when respondents were expected to name politicians they trust (open question). [609] This has been attributed to continued post-Crimea economic stagnation but also an apathetic response to the pandemic crisis in Russia. [610] Polls conducted in November 2021 after the failure of a Russian COVID-19 vaccination campaign indicated distrust of Putin was a major contributing factor for vaccine hesitancy , with regional polls indicating numbers as low as 20–30% in the Volga Federal District. [611]

In May 2021, 33% indicated Putin in response to "who would you vote for this weekend?" among Moscow respondents and 40% outside Moscow. [612] A survey released in October 2021 found 53% of respondents saying they trusted Putin. [613]

Observers see a generational struggle among Russians over perception of Putin's rule, with younger Russians more likely to be against Putin and older Russians more likely to accept the narrative presented by state-controlled media in Russia . [614] Putin's support among Russians aged 18–24 was only 20% in December 2020. [615]

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Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, state-controlled TV, where most Russians get their news, presented the invasion as a "special military operation" and liberation mission, in line with the government's narrative. [617] [618] [619] The Russian censorship apparatus Roskomnadzor ordered the country's media to employ information only from state sources or face fines and blocks. [620] The Russian media was banned from using the words "war", "invasion" or "aggression" to describe the invasion, [618] with media outlets being blocked as a result. [621]

In late February 2022, a survey conducted by the independent research group Russian Field found that 59% of respondents supported the "special military operation" in Ukraine. [622] According to the poll, in the group of 18-to-24-year-olds, only 29% supported the "special military operation". [623] In late February and mid-March 2022 two polls surveyed Russians' sentiments about the "special military operation" in Ukraine. The results were obtained by Radio Liberty . [624] 71% of Russians polled said that they supported the "special military operation" in Ukraine. [625] [624]

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When asked how they were affected by the actions of Putin, a third said they strongly believed Putin was working in their interests. Another 26% said he was working in their interests to some extent. In general, most Russians believe that it would be better if Putin remained president for as long as possible. [625] [624] Similarly, a survey conducted in early March found 58% of Russian respondents approved of the operation. [626] [627]

In March 2022, 97% of Ukrainians said they had an unfavorable view of Putin, and 98% of Ukrainians – including 82% of ethnic Russians living in Ukraine – said they did not believe any part of Ukraine was rightfully part of Russia. [628] A poll published on 30 March in Russia saw Putin's approval rating jump, from 71% in February, to 83%. [629] [630] However, experts warned that the figures may not accurately reflect the public mood, as the public tends to rally around leaders during war and some may be hiding their true opinions, [631] especially with the Russian 2022 war censorship laws prohibiting dissemination of "fake information" about the military. [632] Many respondents do not want to answer pollsters' questions for fear of negative consequences. [622] When researchers commissioned a survey on Russians' attitudes to the war, 29,400 out of 31,000 refused to answer. [633] The Levada Center's director, stated that early feelings of "shock and confusion" was being replaced with the belief that Russia was being besieged and that Russians must rally around their leader. [621] The Kremlin's analysis concluded that public support for the war was broad but not deep, and that most Russians would accept anything Putin labeled a victory. In September 2023, the head of the VTsIOM state pollster Valery Fyodorov said in an interview that only 10–15% of Russians actively supported the war, and that "most Russians are not demanding the conquest of Kyiv or Odesa." [320]

Cult of personality

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Putin has cultivated a cult of personality for himself with an outdoorsy, sporty, tough guy public image , demonstrating his physical prowess and taking part in unusual or dangerous acts, such as extreme sports and interaction with wild animals, [634] part of a public relations approach that, according to Wired , "deliberately cultivates the macho, take-charge superhero image". [635] In 2007, the tabloid Komsomolskaya Pravda published a huge photograph of a shirtless Putin vacationing in the Siberian mountains under the headline "Be Like Putin". [636]

Numerous Kremlinologists have accused Putin of seeking to create a cult of personality around himself, an accusation that the Kremlin has denied. [637] Some of Putin's activities have been criticised for being staged; [638] [639] outside of Russia, his macho image has been the subject of parody. [640] [641] [642] Putin's height has been estimated by Kremlin insiders to be between 155 and 165 centimetres (5 feet 1 inch and 5 feet 5 inches) tall but is usually given at 170 centimetres (5 feet 7 inches). [643] [644]

There are many songs about Putin, [645] and Putin's name and image are widely used in advertisement and product branding. [635] Among the Putin-branded products are Putinka vodka, the PuTin brand of canned food, the Gorbusha Putina caviar , and a collection of T-shirts with his image. [646]

Public recognition in the West

In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year . [647] [648] In 2015, he was No. 1 on the Time's Most Influential People List . [649] [650] Forbes ranked him the World's Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016. [651] He was ranked the second most powerful individual by Forbes in 2018. [652]

In Germany, the word " Putinversteher " (female form "Putinversteherin") is a neologism and a political buzzword ( Putin + verstehen ), which literally translates "Putin understander", i.e., "one who understands Putin". [653] It is a pejorative reference to politicians and pundits who express empathy to Putin and may also be translated as "Putin- empathizer ". [654]

Putin has produced many aphorisms and catch-phrases known as putinisms . [655] Many of them were first made during his annual Q&A conferences, where Putin answered questions from journalists and other people in the studio, as well as from Russians throughout the country, who either phoned in or spoke from studios and outdoor sites across Russia. Putin is known for his often tough and sharp language, often alluding to Russian jokes and folk sayings. [655] Putin sometimes uses Russian criminal jargon (known as " fenya " in Russian), albeit not always correctly. [656]

Assessments

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Assessments of Putin's character as a leader have evolved during his long presidency. His shifting of Russia towards autocracy and weakening of the system of representative government advocated by Boris Yeltsin has met with criticism. [657] Russian dissidents and western leaders now frequently characterise him as a "dictator". Others have offered favourable assessments of his impact on Russia.

Otto von Habsburg , the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary and former Member of the European Parliament , was an early critic of Putin. In a newspaper interview [658] in 2002 and in two speeches [659] in 2003 and 2005, he warned of Putin as an "international threat," that he was "cruel and oppressive," and a "stone cold technocrat". [660]

Putin was described in 2015 as a "dictator" by political opponent Garry Kasparov , [661] and as the "Tsar of corruption" in 2016 by opposition activist and blogger Alexei Navalny . [662] He was described as a "bully" and "arrogant" by former U.S. secretary of state Hillary Clinton , [663] [664] [665] and as "self-centered" by the Dalai Lama . [666] In 2015, opposition politician Boris Nemtsov said that Putin was turning Russia into a "raw materials colony" of China. [667]

Former U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger wrote in 2014 that the West has demonized Putin. [668] Egon Krenz , former leader of East Germany, said the Cold War never ended, adding: "After weak presidents like Gorbachev and Yeltsin, it is a great fortune for Russia that it has Putin." [669]

Many Russians credit Putin for reviving Russia's fortunes. [670] Former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev , while acknowledging the flawed democratic procedures and restrictions on media freedom during the Putin presidency, said that Putin had pulled Russia out of chaos at the end of the Yeltsin years, and that Russians "must remember that Putin saved Russia from the beginning of a collapse." [670] [671] Chechen Republic head and Putin supporter, Ramzan Kadyrov , stated prior to 2011 that Putin saved both the Chechen people and Russia. [672]

Russia has suffered democratic backsliding during Putin's tenure. [673] Freedom House has listed Russia as being "not free" since 2005. [674] Experts do not generally consider Russia to be a democracy, [675] [676] [677] citing purges and jailing of political opponents, [678] [679] curtailed press freedom, [680] [681] [682] and the lack of free and fair elections. [683] [684] [685] In 2004, Freedom House warned that Russia's "retreat from freedom marks a low point not registered since 1989, when the country was part of the Soviet Union." [686]

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Russia as "authoritarian" since 2011, [687] [688] whereas it had previously been considered a " hybrid regime " (with "some form of democratic government" in place). [689] According to political scientist Larry Diamond, writing in 2015, "no serious scholar would consider Russia today a democracy". [690]

Following the jailing of the anti-corruption blogger and activist Alexei Navalny in 2018, Forbes wrote: "Putin's actions are those of a dictator... As a leader with failing public support, he can only remain in power by using force and repression that gets worse by the day." [691] In November 2021, The Economist also noted that Putin had "shifted from autocracy to dictatorship". [692]

In February 2015, former U.S. Ambassador to Germany John Kornblum wrote in the Wall Street Journal that: [693]

Western nations must start the turnaround by emphatically refuting one of Mr. Putin's favorite claims: that the West abrogated the promise of democratic partnership with Russia in the 1990 Paris Charter , a document produced by a summit that included European governments, the U.S. and the Soviet Union, convened as Communism crumbled across Eastern Europe... The U.S. and its allies didn't rush in after 1990 to exploit a proud but collapsing Soviet Union – a tale that Mr. Putin now spins. I took part in nearly every major negotiation of that era. Never was the idea of humbling Russia considered even for a moment. The Russian leaders we encountered were not angry Prussian-style Junkers who railed against a strategic stab in the back. Many if not all viewed the fall of the Soviet Union as liberation rather than defeat... Contrary to Mr. Putin's fictions about NATO's illegal enlargement, the West has honored the agreements worked out with Russia two decades ago.

After the 2022 invasion of Ukraine

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Following mounting civilian casualties during the Russian invasion of Ukraine , [694] U.S. president Joe Biden called Putin a war criminal and "murderous dictator". [695] [696] In the 2022 State of the Union Address , Biden said that Putin had "badly miscalculated". [697] The Ukrainian envoy to the United Nations , Sergiy Kyslytsya likened Putin to Adolf Hitler . [698] Latvian prime minister Krisjanis Karins also likened the Russian leader to Hitler, saying he was "a deluded autocrat creating misery for millions" and that "Putin is fighting against democracy (...) If he can attack Ukraine, theoretically it could be any other European country". [699] [700]

Lithuania's foreign minister Gabrielius Landsbergis said "The battle for Ukraine is a battle for Europe. If Putin is not stopped there, he will go further." [701] President Emmanuel Macron of France said Putin was "deluding himself". [702] French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le Drian denounced him as "a cynic and a dictator". [703] UK prime minister Boris Johnson also labelled Putin a "dictator" who had authorised "a tidal wave of violence against a fellow Slavic people". [704] Some authors, such as Michael Hirsh , described Putin as a "messianic" Russian nationalist and Eurasianist . [705] [706] [707]

On 31 December 2022, President Putin gave a New Year's address before a group of soldiers and other members of the Russian armed forces. Questions were raised about whether or not these were actual soldiers or actors. The BBC used facial recognition to identify at least five of the people in the New Year's address as not servicemen but allies or employees of Putin's. A blonde woman standing behind Putin has been identified as Larisa Sergukhina , a member of the United Russia party in the regional parliament for the Novgorod region. Ms Sergukhina has appeared as a soldier, sailor and member of a church congregation in other past public appearances by President Putin. [708]

Personal life

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On 28 July 1983, Putin married Lyudmila Shkrebneva , and they lived together in East Germany from 1985 to 1990. They have two daughters, Mariya Putina , born on 28 April 1985 in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), and Yekaterina Putina , born on 31 August 1986 in Dresden , East Germany (now Germany). [709]

An investigation by Proekt published in November 2020 alleged that Putin has another daughter, Elizaveta, also known as Luiza Rozova, [710] (born in March 2003), [711] with Svetlana Krivonogikh . [4] [712] In April 2008, the Moskovsky Korrespondent reported that Putin had divorced Lyudmila and was engaged to marry Olympic gold medalist Alina Kabaeva , a former rhythmic gymnast and Russian politician. [2] The story was denied, [2] and the newspaper was shut down shortly thereafter. [3] Putin and Lyudmila continued to make public appearances together as spouses, [713] [714] while the status of his relationship with Kabaeva became a topic of speculation. [715]

On 6 June 2013, Putin and Lyudmila announced that their marriage was over; on 1 April 2014, the Kremlin confirmed that the divorce had been finalised. [716] [717] [718] Kabaeva reportedly gave birth to a daughter by Putin in 2015; [719] [720] this report was denied. [719] Kabaeva reportedly gave birth to twin sons by Putin in 2019. [5] [721] However, in 2022, Swiss media, citing the couple's Swiss gynecologist, wrote that on both occasions Kabaeva gave birth to a boy. [6]

Putin has two grandsons, born in 2012 and 2017, [722] [723] through Maria. [724] He reportedly also has a granddaughter, born in 2017, through Katerina. [725] [726] His cousin, Igor Putin , was a director at Moscow-based Master Bank and was accused in a number of money-laundering scandals. [727] [728]

Official figures released during the legislative election of 2007 put Putin's wealth at approximately 3.7 million rubles (US$280,000) in bank accounts, a private 77.4-square-meter (833 sq ft) apartment in Saint Petersburg, and miscellaneous other assets. [729] [730] Putin's reported 2006 income totaled 2 million rubles (approximately $152,000). In 2012, Putin reported an income of 3.6 million rubles ($270,000). [731] [732] Putin has been photographed wearing a number of expensive wristwatches, collectively valued at $700,000, nearly six times his annual salary. [733] [734] Putin has been known on occasion to give watches valued at thousands of dollars as gifts, for example a watch identified as a Blancpain to a Siberian boy he met while on vacation in 2009, and another similar watch to a factory worker the same year. [735]

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According to Russian opposition politicians and journalists, [736] [737] Putin secretly possesses a multi-billion-dollar fortune via successive ownership of stakes in a number of Russian companies. [738] [739] According to one editorial in The Washington Post , "Putin might not technically own these 43 aircraft, but, as the sole political power in Russia, he can act like they're his". [740] An RIA Novosti journalist argued that "[Western] intelligence agencies ... could not find anything". These contradictory claims were analyzed by Polygraph.info , [741] which looked at a number of reports by Western ( Anders Åslund estimate of $100–160 billion) and Russian ( Stanislav Belkovsky estimated of $40 billion) analysts, CIA (estimate of $40 billion in 2007) as well as counterarguments of Russian media. Polygraph concluded:

There is uncertainty on the precise sum of Putin's wealth, and the assessment by the Director of U.S. National Intelligence apparently is not yet complete. However, with the pile of evidence and documents in the Panama Papers and in the hands of independent investigators such as those cited by Dawisha, Polygraph.info finds that Danilov's claim that Western intelligence agencies have not been able to find evidence of Putin's wealth to be misleading —  Polygraph.info, "Are 'Putin's Billions' a Myth?"

In April 2016, 11 million documents belonging to Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung and the Washington -based International Consortium of Investigative Journalists . The name of Putin does not appear in any of the records, and Putin denied his involvement with the company. [742] However, various media have reported on three of Putin's associates on the list. [743] According to the Panama Papers leak, close trusted associates of Putin own offshore companies worth US$2 billion in total. [744] The German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung regards the possibility of Putin's family profiting from this money as plausible. [745] [746]

According to the paper, the US$2 billion had been "secretly shuffled through banks and shadow companies linked to Putin's associates", such as construction billionaires Arkady and Boris Rotenberg , and Bank Rossiya , previously identified by the U.S. State Department as being treated by Putin as his personal bank account, had been central in facilitating this. It concludes that "Putin has shown he is willing to take aggressive steps to maintain secrecy and protect [such] communal assets." [747] [748]

A significant proportion of the money trail leads to Putin's best friend Sergei Roldugin . Although a musician, and in his own words, not a businessman, it appears he has accumulated assets valued at $100m, and possibly more. It has been suggested he was picked for the role because of his low profile. [743] There have been speculations that Putin, in fact, owns the funds, [749] and Roldugin just acted as a proxy. [750] Garry Kasparov said that "[Putin] controls enough money, probably more than any other individual in the history of human race". [751]

Official government residences

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As president and prime minister, Putin has lived in numerous official residences throughout the country. [752] These residences include: the Moscow Kremlin , Novo-Ogaryovo in Moscow Oblast , Gorki-9  [ ru ] near Moscow, Bocharov Ruchey in Sochi , Dolgiye Borody (residence) in Novgorod Oblast , and Riviera in Sochi. [753] In August 2012, critics of Putin listed the ownership of 20 villas and palaces, nine of which were built during Putin's 12 years in power. [754]

Awards and honours

  • Aleksandr Dugin
  • Vera Putina

Further reading

External links.

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Listen to Model Home highlights here…

Vander Berg Homes – Virtual Tour Model Home #1

Fully custom, open-concept, ranch-style home with 2 bedrooms, 1.75 bathrooms, plus a four-season room. this custom floor plan has 1,778 ft 2 of finished living space..

ranch style homes virtual tour

– Medallion™ Oak Cabinets with shaker-style facing and full-extension, dovetailed, soft-close drawers – Formica® laminate Countertops with hand-rolled edge and 180fx® high resolution effect plus an under mount sink – Walk-in pantry with door-activated light – Build out with window seat – Weather Shield® vinyl windows with rectangular-style, in-glass grill inserts – Shaker-style painted, solid poplar trim, baseboards, door casings and window casings throughout the house – Vaulted ceiling – Four-season sunroom with vaulted ceiling – Karndean® Luxury Vinyl Plank flooring – Custom walk-in tile shower

To view more Vander Berg Homes virtual tours and galleries, check out the links below:

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If you like what you saw above, feel free to stop by Vander Berg Homes at our location on Highway 75 on the south edge of Sioux Center, Iowa, to tour these Stratford Homes in person. Don’t live in Sioux Center? That’s perfectly fine – we serve a large region from northwest Iowa to southwest Minnesota, southeast South Dakota and northeast Nebraska. Our homes are fully customizable to fit everything you want in a dream house: Sunroom, four-seasons room, porch, open-concept, walk-in shower, walk-in closet, walk-in pantry, mudroom and number of bedrooms and living areas. Stop in and talk to our builders today to see how you can get the home you’ve always dreamed of.

We also have a furniture store, Vander Berg Furniture and Flooring , where our designers will offer you free complimentary design services when you build with us. Vander Berg is your one stop to get all the furniture, flooring and countertops you need in your new, custom-built home. We can be as involved as you want us to be. Some of the items we offer is helping you choose paint colors, flooring options, furniture selection and layout, wall and window coverings and more.

If you take advantage of our free complimentary design, here is what you can expect:

  • One-on-one personal assistance from one of our expert designers.
  • Design planning tailored to your style, vision and budget.
  • Exceptional brands to choose from, including Smith Brothers, Bassett, Southern Motion, Lexington, Tommy Bahama, Amish by Winesburg or Yutzy, Mohawk, Daltile, Dreamweaver, Syverson and Hunter Douglas.
  • A passion and commitment to take your home from ordinary to inspired!

Maybe you  just want some new inspiration to freshen up your home. Our model homes are decorated by those same expert designers and are perfect to gather new ideas from. Whether you’re looking for a new piece of furniture or a start-to-finish plan for your new home, the designers at Vander Berg Furniture and Flooring are ready to help. For more design inspiration, check out our blog over on Vander Berg Furniture and Flooring . Whatever your reason for walking through, we hope you stop by and give our homes a look.

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Vander Berg Homes

On the South Edge of Sioux Center

4168 U.S. 75, Sioux Center, IA 51250

PHONE: (712) 722-3286

EMAIL: vbhomes@vbhomes.com

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Kurk Homes

Virtual Tours of Texas New Home Builders Kurk Custom Homes

Discover the essence of luxury living with Kurk Homes , the leading custom home builders in Texas. As a trusted name in the industry, we specialize in crafting exquisite custom homes that truly reflect your unique vision and lifestyle. Explore our virtual tours, easily accessible and designed for effortless navigation from the comfort of your home, to witness the unparalleled craftsmanship and attention to detail that sets us apart. If possible, we recommend coming to our Design Center or one of our Model Homes in person to view finishes and details. 

What to Expect From Virtual Tours

As you embark on this exciting journey, our virtual tours provide an immersive experience, easily accessible from the comfort of your own home. With user-friendly navigation, you can explore our completed projects at your own pace, gaining insight into the artistry and craftsmanship we infuse into every detail. From the grand entryways to the gourmet kitchens, from the luxurious master suites to the enchanting outdoor living spaces, our virtual tours offer a glimpse into the unparalleled quality and design excellence that define Kurk Homes.

Don't settle for ordinary. Let Kurk Homes create a custom masterpiece that surpasses your expectations. Explore our easily accessible and navigable virtual tours today and witness the transformative power of our custom homes in Texas.

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Kurk homes design & build approach.

At Kurk Homes, we understand that building your dream home is a deeply personal journey. That's why we offer a tailored approach to every project, ensuring that each home we create is a filled with personal touches that describe the homeowner. With our team of experienced professionals, we transform your dreams into reality, meticulously designing and constructing custom homes that surpass your expectations.

Texas is a land of vast possibilities, and our custom homes are a testament to the state's rich heritage and contemporary elegance. From the sprawling ranch-style residences of the Hill Country to the sleek and modern retreats of the urban landscape, our portfolio showcases the diverse architectural styles and designs that define Texas living. Whether you're envisioning a charming modern farmhouse, a luxurious Mediterranean villa, or a cutting-edge contemporary masterpiece, our custom home builders bring your vision to life with unparalleled precision.

When you choose Kurk Homes as your custom home builders in Texas, you're partnering with a team committed to delivering top notch results. From initial consultation to final walk-through, we prioritize open communication, attention to detail, and an unwavering dedication to our homeowners. With our expertise, we guide you through every step of the process, ensuring a seamless and stress-free experience.

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Mayfield Model

Beautiful and versatile, The Mayfield comes in one- and two-story options. This two-bed, two-bath home is perfect for entertaining family and friends. The open floor plan showcases a spacious kitchen and island, which overlooks the great room, café, and dining area. While the den provides extra space for a guest room, private study, or even a gym, the master suite features a large walk-in closet and master bath, with his & her sinks, a soaking tub, and a standalone shower with an optional bench.

Revere Model

Gorgeous 4 bedroom 2 ½ bathroom, story and a half home has an over sized great room and open area on the second floor to put an office or a even another place to relax. The large kitchen island is great for people to congregate.

Avondale Model

Blending a spacious layout with cozy details, The Avondale is an expansive two-bedroom, two-bath ranch-style home with one- and two-story options. Ideal for entertaining, the open kitchen boasts island bar seating, which overlooks the dining area and great room. When entertaining time is over, the primary suite is an ideal retreat for relaxation. The primary bath even features a large soaking tub, standalone shower, and his & her sinks. There’s also a relaxing porch in the front of the house and a covered porch in the back, providing a perfect place to enjoy the temperate Louisville climate.

Jamestown Model

Our most popular ranch plan, this 3 bedroom, 2 ½ bathroom is light, airy & open. The large great room has a back wall full of windows. The updated kitchen layout is a chef’s dream!

Lincoln Model

The ultimate 3 bedroom 2 ½ bathroom ranch home is ideal for those who are looking for single story living with extra bedrooms, bathrooms, and large closets. The open-concept great room to kitchen makes for a perfect place for a family to hang out.

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Ranch Modular Homes

Modular ranch homes.

When it comes time for you to choose your future home, many factors will come into play. How many bedrooms will you need? What kind of home living experience are you looking for? Ranch style modular homes might be just what you want. They’re perfect for small to mid-size families and have a quick turnaround time.

Common Design Elements of a Modular Ranch House

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Ranch style modular homes are typically one story and feature the following characteristics: a low pitched roof, a U- or L-shaped floor plan, sliding glass patio doors and large picture windows. At Design. Build. Modular., you can customize your home to have between one and four bedrooms as well as one to three baths. These homes usually have from 1,000 to 3,000 square feet.

If you’re envisioning a family-oriented space with open living areas, choosing one of our prefab ranch homes may be the right option for you.

RANCH | The Liberty

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  • 2,240 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | The Brewster

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  • 2,156 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | Custom Ranch I

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  • 2,080 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | The Monroe

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RANCH | The Dover

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  • 1,792 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | The Greenfield

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  • 1,428 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | Heritage Westbrook

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  • 1,435 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | The Hudson

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  • 1,500 Estimate S.F.

RANCH | The Jackson

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RANCH | The Saranac

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  • 1,300 Estimate S.F.

Benefits of Ranch Style Modular Homes

Modular ranch homes are comfortable and cozy with a stylish flair. Added benefits of a modular ranch house plan may include that they’re:

  • Energy-efficient and eco-friendly: Due to the one-story nature of these homes, your energy bill will cost less.
  • Quick to build: Modular ranch homes take less time to complete than two-story modular homes . If you like the sound of that or are tight on time, this choice will fit your needs perfectly.
  • Able to offer easy access to the outdoors: We plan easy outdoor access into our ranch style homes. Many families opt for sliding glass doors that lead to a deck or pool area.
  • Without stairs: Staircases take up a lot of space in most homes. One-story ranch style modular homes have no stairs, which means more living space for you and your family. It also means increased safety.

Modular Ranch House Plans

Feel free to browse our modular ranch home floor plans online at any time. Although we have a range of prefab ranch homes ready for you to choose from, our designers will work with you to create a custom-built ranch home to your specific needs. We can incorporate your dream cabinetry, kitchen and bathroom designs, flooring, countertops, garages , porches , gables, ceiling styles and more.

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Our number one mission is to provide unparalleled customer service to our clients. Beyond that, we deliver:

  • Incomparable value: All of our homes are designed to maximize the value of your investment.
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  • Quick and high-quality work: We work efficiently under tight time constraints while keeping our quality of work at all time highs.
  • 10-year structural warranty: All of our homes come with a 10 year structural warranty.

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Wanted to let you know that it was a unique pleasure to work with Westchester Modular Homes of Fairfield County. In particular, your quick response and attention to detail was particularly appreciated. The five Town Homes that you provided look beautiful. Once again, thanks for all your help. Peter M. Buccieri
   We recently had a new home built by Westchester Modular Homes and highly recommend this company. Our process started with the design phase. Our home consultant, Dave Dillman, guided us through every step of what was an overwhelming process.       When construction began, our project manager Don O’Brien went out of his way to assist us through this phase. His professionalism and patience helped lessen our stress of having a house built for the first time. His choice of contractors ensured that we received a high level of quality work. It was so exciting to watch our house come to life day by day.    We love our new home and were very happy from start to completion. This has been an enjoyable experience with special thanks to the Westchester Modular Fairfield County team. Toni DiNonno
I would like to write a long-overdue commendation to be put in the file of David Dillman of the Bethel office. We contacted WMHFC after the macroburst last May, and Dave was very enthusiastic about the project and his enthusiasm helped carry us through some dark periods. He was patient and thorough with our questions and always responded quickly. He helped design our new home and gave us freedom to change the existing plans as we saw fit. He and Joe Enright and Kevin McSherry made sure everything went according to their time frame as much as it was in their power. We are very satisfied with the work of WMHFC four months into our new home. I’d like to thank and commend David, Joe, and Kevin for their attention to detail and efforts to get us back and running. Mike Ecsedy
From start to finish, they made the process so easy. My house is beautiful, a dream come true! Michelle L
Westchester Modular Homes of Fairfield helped us build our dream home in less than one year, which included demolishing the old house and preparing the property for the new structure. They worked very closely with us and walked us through every step, from initial layout to selecting the last detail. We are very happy with the final product! Amr Aly
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Modular Home Virtual Tours

Take a virtual tour of our modular homes.

Want to tour our modular homes but can’t make it to our headquarters or one of our model centers throughout the Midwest ?

Take a virtual walkthrough of our most popular modular floor plans below! Whether you’re considering a Cape Cod-inspired home, a Ranch home, or something in between, our virtual tours are a great place to start.

At Rochester Homes, we’re here to help you build a home that matches your unique lifestyle, meaning that each of our modular floor plans can be customized to fit your vision.

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At Rochester Headquarters

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This contemporary, farmhouse Cape Cod home boasts an open concept kitchen, dining, and living area. Inside, residents can indulge in a luxurious master bath with a rainfall shower, double lavenette, and walk-in closet.

Image of The Heritage Model

These versatile ranch homes are loaded with features that include an oversized kitchen island, a large master bed/bath suite, and a farmhouse fireplace.

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This is an open concept, split bedroom ranch home that features a master bed/bath suite.

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Custom ranch.

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Perfect for narrow lots, this three-bedroom, two-bath home packs a lot into its floorplan. Features include an open concept kitchen, living, and dining room.

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This home features clean geometric lines in its contemporary design. The highlights of this home are its kitchen and eat-in bar.

Image of The Custom Ranch Model

This custom ranch feels airy with its light-colored cabinets and open floor plan design. The master bath showcases a custom cabinet design that provides ample storage.

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The highlight of this ranch home is its kitchen, which features generous cabinet storage and a large island for food preparation.

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Open concept, split bedroom classic ranch home that features a master bed/bath suite. This version offers a corner tub and basement prep.

Image of The Heritage Model

Open concept, split bedroom classic ranch home that features a master bed/bath suite. This version offers a Tranquility tub/shower and a spacious utility room.

Image of The Joseph Model

This model's highpoint is its well-designed eat-in kitchen with an island bar.

Image of The Heritage Model

Open concept, split bedroom classic ranch home that features a master bed/bath suite. This home stands out with its serenity shower and its spacious walk-in closet.

Image of The Roosevelt Model

Versatile ranch homes loaded with features that include an oversized kitchen island, a large drop-in oval tub, and drywall archways.

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Rodrock Homes

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Experience the rodrock homes difference 24/7 with our virtual 3d tours. once you find that home you love, contact the community manager to schedule your personal tour of the home., virtual tour.

  • Reverse 1½ Story
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  • $565,000 (Base Price)
  • 2,697 sq.ft
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At Home With Kent and Peggy Ambler: Breathtaking mountaintop views

ranch style homes virtual tour

Kent and Peggy Ambler’s unique home rests on top of Paris Mountain among 12 wooded acres and boasts breathtaking views. Built in the mid-1960’s by Bob and Jane Coleman, who owned it for nearly 40 years, the home had been vacant for several years when the Amblers’ realtor presented it for their consideration. As creatives and nature lovers, the Amblers say they finally found everything they wanted in a home. 

While most people think of the home as mid-century modern, Kent shared that a more accurate description is California ranch.  

More at Home with... : Simple green barn becomes a home with a voice

Ranch-style homes were introduced in the 1930s, fell out of favor briefly in the 1940s, then became even more popular in the post-World War II era until the 1970s. At the height of their popularity, nine out of ten homes being built were ranches.  

Specific features of California ranches include low roof lines and deep eaves, construction from local-source materials, are often visually obscured from the front of the home with sprawling open spaces in the back of the home. The frequent L- or U-shapes invite the outside inside, with rows of large windows or doors. 

All these features are prominent as you walk through the Ambler’s home. Many features are still original, including kitchen cabinetry, cherry tongue-and-groove paneling in the library, teak floors, wall toilets and enameled cast iron sinks in the bathrooms, the moldings throughout the home, six-paneled doors, and the exterior cedar plank siding.  

The home has three wood-burning fireplaces, and two retain their original brick and natural wood look. The wall surrounding the fireplace in the living room was covered with stucco when the Wyche family owned the home. It is used often during cooler months, Kent says. 

Kent’s favorite part of the property, along with the sweeping views of Old Buncombe Road from the living room, is the spacious and light filled art studio, built over the former in-ground pool. The koi pond is Peggy’s favorite feature of the property, where she can often be found practicing yoga. 

The Amblers invite the community into their home every year for the Open Studios tour and will also participate in the gvlMOD House Tour in April. They say they look forward to many more years of enjoying their mountaintop home surrounded by nature, art, family and friends. 

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Landscape Architects & Designers in Elektrostal'

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Featured Reviews for Landscape Architects & Designers in Elektrostal'

  • Reach out to the pro(s) you want, then share your vision to get the ball rolling.
  • Request and compare quotes, then hire the Landscape Architect & Landscape Designer that perfectly fits your project and budget limits.

A landscape architect designs and plans outdoor spaces based on the client’s needs and preferences. They:

  • Create detailed plans and visual representations using computer software.
  • Select suitable materials and consider environmental factors like drainage and energy usage.
  • Collaborate with other professionals in Elektrostal' and oversee landscaping project progress.

Landscape architects are typically required to be licensed in order to practice professionally.

By using the expertise of a landscape architect, clients can ensure that their outdoor spaces in Elektrostal' are carefully designed, functional, and visually appealing.

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  • Have a degree or certification in landscape design, horticulture, or a related field
  • Best for smaller projects like designing a small backyard or creating a beautiful residential garden.
  • Have expertise in creating personalized designs, selecting plants, and suggesting features like patios or garden beds.
  • Knowledgeable about plant care, garden aesthetics, and creating functional outdoor spaces.
  • Hold a professional degree in landscape architecture and are licensed to practice.
  • Best for larger-scale projects like designing a large garden or dealing with challenging terrains.
  • Specialize in creating master plans for big properties, integrating features like water elements, outdoor structures, and extensive plantings.
  • Have a deep understanding of design principles, construction techniques, and environmental considerations.

What does a landscape architect do?

What does a landscape designer do, questions to ask prospective landscapers in elektrostal', moscow oblast, russia:, find landscape architects & designers near me on houzz, business services, connect with us.

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Guide, Driver and Photographer Arthur Lookyanov

My name's Arthur Lookyanov, I'm a private tour guide, personal driver and photographer in Moscow, Russia. I work in my business and run my website Moscow-Driver.com from 2002. Read more about me and my services , check out testimonials of my former business and travel clients from all over the World, hit me up on Twitter or other social websites. I hope that you will like my photos as well.

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  1. House Plans with Virtual Tours & Videos

    An increasingly popular request from our clients is videos of our house plans. These can include: 360 degrees of the exterior using a drone flyover; Video walk-through of the interior; Even a photo-inspired video showing the home's layout from room to room. More recently, we've begun to offer virtual reality Read More

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    TAKE A HERITAGE HOMES VIRTUAL TOUR Look around and enjoy an interactive 3D experience. Virtual Tours heritageweb1333 2024-02-01T22:08:10-05:00. CUSTOM RANCH - 2900 sqft. ... THE HAHN RANCH - 1700 sqft. Virtual Tour. ORMONDE - 1805 sqft. Virtual Tour. GLEASON REVISED - 2400 sqft. Virtual Tour. BRODIE - 2500 sqft. Virtual Tour.

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    3 Bed 2 Bath 1335 Sq Ft 2 Car Garage. Not too big. Not too small. The Monroe is like the goldilocks of floor plans. It offers space where you need it, like a generously sized great room, three bedrooms, and a walk-in closet off of the owner's suite. But you won't find any unnecessary bells and whistles here.

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    3 Bed 2.5 Bath 1863 Sq Ft 2 Car Garage. Say you like the convenience of a single-story floor plan, with the accommodating spaciousness of an open design, but you need some space of your own, too. This is the floor plan for you. The main-floor owner suite, featuring a walk-in closet and spa-like shower, is nicely removed from the secondary bedrooms.

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    View the Elite Homes virtual tours gallery. ... Blending a spacious layout with cozy details, The Avondale is an expansive two-bedroom, two-bath ranch-style home with one- and two-story options. Ideal for entertaining, the open kitchen boasts island bar seating, which overlooks the dining area and great room. ... Tour The Elite Homes Design ...

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    Take a virtual walkthrough of our most popular modular floor plans below! Whether you're considering a Cape Cod-inspired home, a Ranch home, or something in between, our virtual tours are a great place to start. At Rochester Homes, we're here to help you build a home that matches your unique lifestyle, meaning that each of our modular floor ...

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    Take a virtual tour and picture yourself in your very own brand new home. Experience the craftsmanship of a Schumacher Homes custom built home first hand. 4.875% (5.108% APR) 30-Year Fixed Permanent Financing for qualified buyers* Click for details!

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  20. At Home With Kent and Peggy Ambler: Breathtaking mountaintop views

    The Amblers invite the community to their home every year for the Open Studios tour and will participate in the gvlMOD House Tour. ... Ranch-style homes were introduced in the 1930s, fell out of ...

  21. New & Custom Home Builders in Elektrostal'

    Before you hire a custom home builder in Elektrostal', Moscow Oblast, browse through our network of over 1,121 local custom home builders. Read through customer reviews, check out their past projects and then request a quote from the best custom home builders near you. Finding custom home builders in my area is easy on Houzz.

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  24. Landscape Architects & Designers in Elektrostal'

    Professional landscaping anchors a house to the site, connects it with the environment and creates a welcoming entrance to a home. A Elektrostal' landscape architect or designer works with living plants as well as building materials to design for future growth and maintenance as well as the present visual appeal.

  25. Moscow Metro

    In fact, Komsomolskaya-Ring marks the height of the Stalinist Empire style in the Moscow Metro. The station design was awarded a grand prix at the International Exhibition in Brussels in 1958. Photo #146 taken on June 03, 2012 during Moscow Metro tour with my Dear client from USA, Brandon Pelsmaeker.